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1= Trac Installation Guide for 1.1
2[[TracGuideToc]]
3
4Trac is written in the Python programming language and needs a database, [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], or [http://mysql.com/ MySQL]. For HTML rendering, Trac uses the [http://genshi.edgewall.org Genshi] templating system.
5
6Trac can also be localized, and there is probably a translation available in your language. If you want to use the Trac interface in other languages, then make sure you have installed the optional package [#OtherPythonPackages Babel]. Pay attention to the extra steps for localization support in the [#InstallingTrac Installing Trac] section below. Lacking Babel, you will only get the default English version.
7
8If you're interested in contributing new translations for other languages or enhancing the existing translations, then please have a look at [trac:wiki:TracL10N TracL10N].
9
10What follows are generic instructions for installing and setting up Trac. While you may find instructions for installing Trac on specific systems at [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], please '''first read through these general instructions''' to get a good understanding of the tasks involved.
11
12[[PageOutline(2-3,Installation Steps,inline)]]
13
14== Dependencies
15=== Mandatory Dependencies
16To install Trac, the following software packages must be installed:
17
18 * [http://www.python.org/ Python], version >= 2.6 and < 3.0
19   (note that we dropped the support for Python 2.5 in this release)
20 * [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setuptools setuptools], version >= 0.6
21 * [http://genshi.edgewall.org/wiki/Download Genshi], version >= 0.6
22
23You also need a database system and the corresponding python bindings. The database can be either SQLite, PostgreSQL or MySQL.
24
25==== For the SQLite database #ForSQLite
26
27As you must be using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you already have the SQLite database bindings bundled with the standard distribution of Python (the `sqlite3` module).
28
29Optionally, you may install a newer version of [pypi:pysqlite pysqlite] than the one provided by the Python distribution. See [trac:PySqlite#ThePysqlite2bindings PySqlite] for details.
30
31==== For the PostgreSQL database #ForPostgreSQL
32
33You need to install the database and its Python bindings:
34 * [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], version 8.0 or later
35 * [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/psycopg2 psycopg2], version 2.0 or later
36
37See [trac:DatabaseBackend#Postgresql DatabaseBackend] for details.
38
39==== For the MySQL database #ForMySQL
40
41Trac works well with MySQL, provided you follow the guidelines:
42
43 * [http://mysql.com/ MySQL], version 5.0 or later
44 * [http://sf.net/projects/mysql-python MySQLdb], version 1.2.2 or later
45
46Given the caveats and known issues surrounding MySQL, read carefully the [trac:MySqlDb] page before creating the database.
47
48=== Optional Dependencies
49
50==== Subversion
51
52[http://subversion.apache.org/ Subversion], 1.6.x or later and the '''''corresponding''''' Python bindings.
53
54There are [http://subversion.apache.org/packages.html pre-compiled SWIG bindings] available for various platforms. (Good luck finding precompiled SWIG bindings for any Windows package at that listing. [trac:TracSubversion] points you to [http://alagazam.net Alagazam], which works for me under Python 2.6.)
55
56For troubleshooting information, see the [trac:TracSubversion#Troubleshooting TracSubversion] page.
57
58{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
59**Note:**
60* Trac '''doesn't''' use [http://pysvn.tigris.org/ PySVN], nor does it work yet with the newer `ctype`-style bindings.
61* If using Subversion, Trac must be installed on the '''same machine'''. Remote repositories are currently [trac:ticket:493 not supported].
62}}}
63
64==== Git
65
66[http://git-scm.com/ Git] 1.5.6 or later is supported. More information is available on the [trac:TracGit] page.
67
68==== Other Version Control Systems
69
70Support for other version control systems is provided via third-party plugins. See [trac:PluginList#VersionControlSystems] and [trac:VersionControlSystem].
71
72==== Web Server
73A web server is optional because Trac is shipped with a server included, see the [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running the Standalone Server] section below.
74
75Alternatively you can configure Trac to run in any of the following environments:
76 * [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] with
77   - [https://github.com/GrahamDumpleton/mod_wsgi mod_wsgi], see [wiki:TracModWSGI] and
78     [http://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/wiki/IntegrationWithTrac ModWSGI IntegrationWithTrac].
79   - [http://modpython.org/ mod_python 3.5.0], see TracModPython
80 * a [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI]-capable web server (see TracFastCgi)
81 * an [http://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/ajp/ajpv13a.html AJP]-capable web
82   server (see [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp TracOnWindowsIisAjp])
83 * Microsoft IIS with FastCGI and a FastCGI-to-WSGI gateway (see [trac:CookBook/Installation/TracOnWindowsIisWfastcgi IIS with FastCGI])
84 * a CGI-capable web server (see TracCgi), '''but usage of Trac as a cgi script
85   is highly discouraged''', better use one of the previous options.
86   
87
88==== Other Python Packages
89
90 * [http://babel.edgewall.org Babel], version 0.9.6 or >= 1.3,
91   needed for localization support
92 * [http://docutils.sourceforge.net/ docutils], version >= 0.3.9
93   for WikiRestructuredText.
94 * [http://pygments.org Pygments] for
95   [TracSyntaxColoring syntax highlighting].
96 * [http://pytz.sf.net pytz] to get a complete list of time zones,
97   otherwise Trac will fall back on a shorter list from
98   an internal time zone implementation.
99
100{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
101**Attention**: The available versions of these dependencies are not necessarily interchangeable, so please pay attention to the version numbers. If you are having trouble getting Trac to work, please double-check all the dependencies before asking for help on the [trac:MailingList] or [trac:IrcChannel].
102}}}
103
104Please refer to the documentation of these packages to find out how they are best installed. In addition, most of the [trac:TracInstallPlatforms platform-specific instructions] also describe the installation of the dependencies. Keep in mind however that the information there ''probably concern older versions of Trac than the one you're installing''.
105
106== Installing Trac
107
108The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command-line tool, used to create and maintain [TracEnvironment project environments], as well as the [TracStandalone tracd] standalone server are installed along with Trac. There are several methods for installing Trac.
109
110=== Using `easy_install`
111Trac can be installed from PyPI or the Subversion repository using [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setuptools setuptools].
112
113A few examples:
114
115 - Install Trac 1.0:
116   {{{#!sh
117   easy_install Trac==1.0
118   }}}
119 - Install latest development version:
120   {{{#!sh
121   easy_install Trac==dev
122   }}}
123   Note that in this case you won't have the possibility to run a localized version of Trac;
124   either use a released version or install from source
125
126More information can be found on the [trac:setuptools] page.
127
128{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
129**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation. More information may be found in the sections on [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running The Standalone Server] and [#RunningTraconaWebServer Running Trac on a Web Server].
130}}}
131
132=== Using `pip`
133'pip' is an easy_install replacement that is very useful to quickly install python packages.
134To get a Trac installation up and running in less than 5 minutes:
135
136Assuming you want to have your entire pip installation in `/opt/user/trac`
137
138 -
139 {{{#!sh
140pip install trac psycopg2
141}}}
142or
143 -
144 {{{#!sh
145pip install trac mysql-python
146}}}
147
148Make sure your OS specific headers are available for pip to automatically build PostgreSQL (`libpq-dev`) or MySQL (`libmysqlclient-dev`) bindings.
149
150pip will automatically resolve all dependencies (like Genshi, pygments, etc.), download the latest packages from pypi.python.org and create a self contained installation in `/opt/user/trac`.
151
152All commands (`tracd`, `trac-admin`) are available in `/opt/user/trac/bin`. This can also be leveraged for `mod_python` (using `PythonHandler` directive) and `mod_wsgi` (using `WSGIDaemonProcess` directive)
153
154Additionally, you can install several Trac plugins (listed [https://pypi.python.org/pypi?:action=browse&show=all&c=516 here]) through pip.
155
156=== From source
157Using the python-typical setup at the top of the source directory also works. You can obtain the source for a .tar.gz or .zip file corresponding to a release (e.g. `Trac-1.0.tar.gz`) from the [trac:TracDownload] page, or you can get the source directly from the repository. See [trac:TracRepositories#OfficialSubversionrepository TracRepositories] for details.
158
159{{{#!sh
160$ python ./setup.py install
161}}}
162
163''You will need root permissions or equivalent for this step.''
164
165This will byte-compile the Python source code and install it as an .egg file or folder in the `site-packages` directory
166of your Python installation. The .egg will also contain all other resources needed by standard Trac, such as `htdocs` and `templates`.
167
168If you install from source and want to make Trac available in other languages, make sure Babel is installed. Only then, perform the `install` (or simply redo the `install` once again afterwards if you realize Babel was not yet installed):
169{{{#!sh
170$ python ./setup.py install
171}}}
172Alternatively, you can run `bdist_egg` and copy the .egg from `dist/` to the place of your choice, or you can create a Windows installer (`bdist_wininst`).
173
174=== Using installer
175
176On Windows, Trac can be installed using the exe installers available on the [trac:TracDownload] page. Installers are available for the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Python. Make sure to use the installer that matches the architecture of your Python installation.
177
178=== Using package manager
179
180Trac may be available in your platform's package repository. Note however, that the version provided by your package manager may not be the latest release.
181
182=== Advanced `easy_install` Options
183
184To install Trac to a custom location, or find out about other advanced installation options, run:
185{{{#!sh
186easy_install --help
187}}}
188
189Also see [http://docs.python.org/2/install/index.html Installing Python Modules] for detailed information.
190
191Specifically, you might be interested in:
192{{{#!sh
193easy_install --prefix=/path/to/installdir
194}}}
195or, if installing Trac on a Mac OS X system:
196{{{#!sh
197easy_install --prefix=/usr/local --install-dir=/Library/Python/2.6/site-packages
198}}}
199
200{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
201**Mac OS X Note:** On Mac OS X 10.6,  running `easy_install trac` will install into `/usr/local` and `/Library/Python/2.6/site-packages` by default.
202
203The `tracd` and `trac-admin` commands will be placed in `/usr/local/bin` and will install the Trac libraries and dependencies into `/Library/Python/2.6/site-packages`, which is Apple's preferred location for third-party Python application installations.
204}}}
205
206== Creating a Project Environment
207
208A [TracEnvironment Trac environment] is the backend where Trac stores information like wiki pages, tickets, reports, settings, etc. An environment is a directory that contains a human-readable [TracIni configuration file], and other files and directories.
209
210A new environment is created using [TracAdmin trac-admin]:
211{{{#!sh
212$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
213}}}
214
215[TracAdmin trac-admin] will prompt you for the information it needs to create the environment: the name of the project and the [TracEnvironment#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string]. If you're not sure what to specify for any of these options, just press `<Enter>` to use the default value.
216
217Using the default database connection string will always work as long as you have SQLite installed. For the other [trac:DatabaseBackend database backends] you should plan ahead and already have a database ready to use at this point.
218
219Also note that the values you specify here can be changed later using TracAdmin or directly editing the [TracIni conf/trac.ini] configuration file.
220
221{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
222**Filesystem Warning:** When selecting the location of your environment, make sure that the filesystem on which the environment directory resides supports sub-second timestamps (i.e. **not** `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX), as the modification time of the `conf/trac.ini` file will be monitored to decide whether an environment restart is needed or not. A too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may result in inconsistencies in Trac < 1.0.2. The best advice is to opt for a platform with sub-second timestamp resolution, regardless of the Trac version.
223}}}
224
225Finally, make sure the user account under which the web front-end runs will have '''write permissions''' to the environment directory and all the files inside. This will be the case if you run `trac-admin ... initenv` as this user. If not, you should set the correct user afterwards. For example on Linux, with the web server running as user `apache` and group `apache`, enter:
226{{{#!sh
227$ chown -R apache:apache /path/to/myproject
228}}}
229
230The actual username and groupname of the apache server may not be exactly `apache`, and are specified in the Apache configuration file by the directives `User` and `Group` (if Apache `httpd` is what you use).
231
232{{{#!div class=important
233'''Warning:''' Please only use ASCII-characters for account name and project path, unicode characters are not supported there.
234}}}
235
236== Deploying Trac
237
238=== Running the Standalone Server
239
240After having created a Trac environment, you can easily try the web interface by running the standalone server [TracStandalone tracd]:
241{{{#!sh
242$ tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
243}}}
244
245Then, fire up a browser and visit `http://localhost:8000/`. You should get a simple listing of all environments that `tracd` knows about. Follow the link to the environment you just created, and you should see Trac in action. If you only plan on managing a single project with Trac you can have the standalone server skip the environment list by starting it like this:
246{{{#!sh
247$ tracd -s --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
248}}}
249
250{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
251**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation. The environment variable can be set system-wide, or for just the user that runs the `tracd` process. There are several ways to accomplish this in addition to what is discussed here, and depending on the distribution of your OS.
252
253To be effective system-wide a shell script with the `export` statement may be added to `/etc/profile.d`. To be effective for a user session the `export` statement may be added to `~/.profile`.
254{{{#!sh
255export PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1
256}}}
257
258Alternatively, the variable can be set in the shell before executing `tracd`:
259{{{#!sh
260$ PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1 tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
261}}}
262}}}
263
264=== Running Trac on a Web Server
265
266Trac provides various options for connecting to a "real" web server:
267 - [TracFastCgi FastCGI]
268 - [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]
269 - [TracModPython mod_python]
270 - //[TracCgi CGI] (should not be used, as the performance is far from optimal)//
271
272Trac also supports [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP] which may be your choice if you want to connect to IIS. Other deployment scenarios are possible: [trac:TracNginxRecipe nginx], [http://projects.unbit.it/uwsgi/wiki/Example#Traconapacheinasub-uri uwsgi], [trac:TracOnWindowsIisIsapi Isapi-wsgi] etc.
273
274==== Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory #cgi-bin
275
276In order for Trac to function properly with FastCGI you need to have a `trac.fcgi` file and for mod_wsgi a `trac.wsgi` file. These are Python scripts which load the appropriate Python code. They can be generated using the `deploy` option of [TracAdmin trac-admin].
277
278There is, however, a bit of a chicken-and-egg problem. The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command requires an existing environment to function, but complains if the deploy directory already exists. This is a problem, because environments are often stored in a subdirectory of the deploy. The solution is to do something like this:
279{{{#!sh
280mkdir -p /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project
281trac-admin /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project initenv
282trac-admin /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project deploy /tmp/deploy
283mv /tmp/deploy/* /usr/share/trac
284}}}
285Don't forget to check that the web server has the execution right on scripts in the `/usr/share/trac/cgi-bin` directory.
286
287==== Mapping Static Resources
288
289Out of the box, Trac will pass static resources such as style sheets or images through itself. For anything but a tracd only based deployment, this is far from optimal as the web server could be set up to directly serve those static resources (for CGI setup, this is '''highly undesirable''' and will cause abysmal performance).
290
291Web servers such as [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] allow you to create “Aliases” to resources, giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily reflect the layout of the servers file system. We also can map requests for static resources directly to the directory on the file system, avoiding processing these requests by Trac itself.
292
293There are two primary URL paths for static resources - `/chrome/common` and `/chrome/site`. Plugins can add their own resources, usually accessible by `/chrome/<plugin>` path, so its important to override only known paths and not try to make universal `/chrome` alias for everything.
294
295Note that in order to get those static resources on the filesystem, you need first to extract the relevant resources from Trac using the TracAdmin `deploy` command:
296[[TracAdminHelp(deploy)]]
297
298The target `<directory>` will then contain an `htdocs` directory with:
299 - `site/` - a copy of the environment's directory `htdocs/`
300 - `common/` - the static resources of Trac itself
301 - `<plugins>/` - one directory for each resource directory managed by the plugins enabled for this environment
302
303===== Example: Apache and `ScriptAlias` #ScriptAlias-example
304
305Assuming the deployment has been done this way:
306{{{#!sh
307$ trac-admin /var/trac/env deploy /path/to/shared/trac
308}}}
309
310Add the following snippet to Apache configuration ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` (which map all the other requests to the Trac application), changing paths to match your deployment:
311{{{#!apache
312Alias /trac/chrome/common /path/to/trac/htdocs/common
313Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/trac/htdocs/site
314
315<Directory "/path/to/www/trac/htdocs">
316  Order allow,deny
317  Allow from all
318</Directory>
319}}}
320
321If using mod_python, you might want to add this too (otherwise, the alias will be ignored):
322{{{#!apache
323<Location "/trac/chrome/common/">
324  SetHandler None
325</Location>
326}}}
327
328Note that we mapped the `/trac` part of the URL to the `trac.*cgi` script, and the path `/trac/chrome/common` is the path you have to append to that location to intercept requests to the static resources.
329
330Similarly, if you have static resources in a project's `htdocs` directory (which is referenced by `/trac/chrome/site` URL in themes), you can configure Apache to serve those resources (again, put this ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` for the .*cgi scripts, and adjust names and locations to match your installation):
331{{{#!apache
332Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/projectenv/htdocs
333
334<Directory "/path/to/projectenv/htdocs">
335  Order allow,deny
336  Allow from all
337</Directory>
338}}}
339
340Alternatively to aliasing `/trac/chrome/common`, you can tell Trac to generate direct links for those static resources (and only those), using the [[TracIni#trac-section| [trac] htdocs_location]] configuration setting:
341{{{#!ini
342[trac]
343htdocs_location = http://static.example.org/trac-common/
344}}}
345Note that this makes it easy to have a dedicated domain serve those static resources (preferentially [http://code.google.com/speed/page-speed/docs/request.html#ServeFromCookielessDomain cookie-less]).
346
347Of course, you still need to make the Trac `htdocs/common` directory available through the web server at the specified URL, for example by copying (or linking) the directory into the document root of the web server:
348{{{#!sh
349$ ln -s /path/to/trac/htdocs/common /var/www/static.example.org/trac-common
350}}}
351
352==== Setting up the Plugin Cache
353
354Some Python plugins need to be extracted to a cache directory. By default the cache resides in the home directory of the current user. When running Trac on a Web Server as a dedicated user (which is highly recommended) who has no home directory, this might prevent the plugins from starting. To override the cache location you can set the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` environment variable. Refer to your server documentation for detailed instructions on how to set environment variables.
355
356== Configuring Authentication
357
358Trac uses HTTP authentication. You'll need to configure your webserver to request authentication when the `.../login` URL is hit (the virtual path of the "login" button). Trac will automatically pick the `REMOTE_USER` variable up after you provide your credentials. Therefore, all user management goes through your web server configuration. Please consult the documentation of your web server for more info.
359
360The process of adding, removing, and configuring user accounts for authentication depends on the specific way you run Trac.
361
362Please refer to one of the following sections:
363 * TracStandalone#UsingAuthentication if you use the standalone server, `tracd`.
364 * [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] if you use the Apache web server, with any of its front end: `mod_wsgi`, `mod_python`, `mod_fcgi` or `mod_fastcgi`.
365 * TracFastCgi if you're using another web server with FCGI support (Cherokee, Lighttpd, !LiteSpeed, nginx)
366
367[trac:TracAuthenticationIntroduction] also contains some useful information for beginners.
368
369== Granting admin rights to the admin user
370Grant admin rights to user admin:
371{{{#!sh
372$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject permission add admin TRAC_ADMIN
373}}}
374
375This user will have an //Admin// navigation item that directs to pages for administering your Trac project.
376
377== Configuring Trac
378
379TracRepositoryAdmin provides information on configuring version control repositories for your project.
380
381== Using Trac
382
383Once you have your Trac site up and running, you should be able to create tickets, view the timeline, browse your version control repository if configured, etc.
384
385Keep in mind that //anonymous// (not logged in) users can by default access only a few of the features, in particular they will have a read-only access to the resources. You will need to configure authentication and grant additional [TracPermissions permissions] to authenticated users to see the full set of features.
386
387'' Enjoy! ''
388
389[trac:TracTeam The Trac Team]
390
391----
392See also: [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], TracGuide, TracUpgrade, TracPermissions
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.