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1= Trac Links =
2[[TracGuideToc]]
3
4TracLinks are a fundamental feature of Trac, because they allow easy hyperlinking between the various entities in the system—such as tickets, reports, changesets, Wiki pages, milestones, and source files—from anywhere WikiFormatting is used.
5
6TracLinks are generally of the form '''type:id''' (where ''id'' represents the
7number, name or path of the item) though some frequently used kinds of items
8also have short-hand notations.
9
10== Where to use TracLinks ==
11You can use TracLinks in:
12
13 * Source code (Subversion) commit messages
14 * Wiki pages
15 * Full descriptions for tickets, reports and milestones
16
17and any other text fields explicitly marked as supporting WikiFormatting.
18
19== Overview ==
20
21||= Wiki Markup =||= Display =||
22{{{#!td
23 Wiki pages :: `CamelCase` or `wiki:CamelCase`
24 Parent page :: `[..]`
25 Tickets :: `#1` or `ticket:1`
26 Ticket comments :: `comment:1:ticket:2`
27 Reports :: `{1}` or `report:1`
28 Milestones :: `milestone:1.0`
29 Attachment :: `attachment:example.tgz` (for current page attachment), `attachment:attachment.1073.diff:ticket:944` (absolute path)
30 Changesets :: `r1`, `[1]`, `changeset:1` or (restricted) `[1/trunk]`, `changeset:1/trunk`
31 Revision log :: `r1:3`, `[1:3]` or `log:@1:3`, `log:trunk@1:3`, `[2:5/trunk]`
32 Diffs :: `diff:@1:3`, `diff:plugins/0.12/mercurial-plugin@9128:9953`,
33          `diff:tags/trac-0.9.2/wiki-default//tags/trac-0.9.3/wiki-default`
34          or `diff:trunk/trac@3538//sandbox/vc-refactoring@3539`
35 Files :: `source:trunk/COPYING`, `source:/trunk/COPYING@200` (at version 200), `source:/trunk/COPYING@200#L25` (at version 200, line 25)
36}}}
37{{{#!td
38 Wiki pages :: CamelCase or wiki:CamelCase
39 Parent page :: [..]
40 Tickets :: #1 or ticket:1
41 Ticket comments :: comment:1:ticket:2
42 Reports :: {1} or report:1
43 Milestones :: milestone:1.0
44 Attachment :: attachment:example.tgz (for current page attachment), attachment:attachment.1073.diff:ticket:944 (absolute path)
45 Changesets :: r1, [1], changeset:1 or (restricted) [1/trunk], changeset:1/trunk
46 Revision log :: r1:3, [1:3] or log:@1:3, log:trunk@1:3, [2:5/trunk]
47 Diffs :: diff:@1:3, diff:plugins/0.12/mercurial-plugin@9128:9953,
48          diff:tags/trac-0.9.2/wiki-default//tags/trac-0.9.3/wiki-default
49          or diff:trunk/trac@3538//sandbox/vc-refactoring@3539
50 Files :: source:trunk/COPYING, source:/trunk/COPYING@200 (at version 200), source:/trunk/COPYING@200#L25 (at version 200, line 25)
51}}}
52
53'''Note:''' The wiki:CamelCase form is rarely used, but it can be convenient to refer to
54pages whose names do not follow WikiPageNames rules, i.e., single words,
55non-alphabetic characters, etc. See WikiPageNames for more about features specific
56to links to Wiki page names.
57
58
59{{{#!table class=""
60|||| Trac links using the full (non-shorthand) notation can also be given a custom link title like this: ||
61{{{#!td
62{{{
63[ticket:1 This is a link to ticket number one] or
64[[ticket:1|This is another link to ticket number one]].
65}}}
66}}}
67{{{#!td
68[ticket:1 This is a link to ticket number one] or
69[[ticket:1|This is another link to ticket number one]].
70}}}
71|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
72|||| If the title is omitted, only the id (the part after the colon) is displayed:  ||
73{{{#!td
74{{{
75[ticket:1] or [[ticket:2]]
76}}}
77}}}
78{{{#!td
79[ticket:1] or [[ticket:2]]
80}}}
81|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
82|||| `wiki` is the default if the namespace part of a full link is omitted:  ||
83{{{#!td
84{{{
85[SandBox the sandbox] or
86[[SandBox|the sandbox]]
87}}}
88}}}
89{{{#!td
90[SandBox the sandbox] or
91[[SandBox|the sandbox]]
92}}}
93|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
94|||| The short form ''realm:target'' can also be wrapped within a <...> pair, [[br]] which allow for arbitrary characters (i.e. anything but >)  ||
95{{{#!td
96{{{
97<wiki:Strange(page@!)>
98}}}
99}}}
100{{{#!td
101<wiki:Strange(page@!)>
102}}}
103}}}
104
105TracLinks are a very simple idea, but actually allow quite a complex network of information. In practice, it's very intuitive and simple to use, and we've found the "link trail" extremely helpful to better understand what's happening in a project or why a particular change was made.
106
107
108== Advanced use of TracLinks ==
109
110=== Relative links ===
111
112To create a link to a [trac:SubWiki SubWiki]-page just use a '/':
113{{{
114 WikiPage/SubWikiPage or ./SubWikiPage
115}}}
116
117To link from a [trac:SubWiki SubWiki] page to a parent, simply use a '..':
118{{{
119  [..] or [[..]]
120}}}
121  [..] or [[..]]
122
123To link from a [trac:SubWiki SubWiki] page to a [=#sibling sibling] page, use a '../':
124{{{
125  [../Sibling see next sibling] or [[../Sibling|see next sibling]]
126}}}
127  [../Sibling see next sibling] or [[../Sibling|see next sibling]]
128
129But in practice you often won't need to add the `../` prefix to link to a sibling page.
130For resolving the location of a wiki link, it's the target page closest in the hierarchy
131to the page where the link is written which will be selected. So for example, within
132a sub-hierarchy, a sibling page will be targeted in preference to a toplevel page.
133This makes it easy to copy or move pages to a sub-hierarchy by [[WikiNewPage#renaming|renaming]] without having to adapt the links.
134
135In order to link explicitly to a [=#toplevel toplevel] Wiki page,
136use the `wiki:/` prefix.
137Be careful **not** to use the `/` prefix alone, as this corresponds to the
138[#Server-relativelinks] syntax and with such a link you will lack the `/wiki/`
139part in the resulting URL.
140
141''(Changed in 0.11)'' Note that in Trac 0.10, using e.g. `[../newticket]`  may have worked for linking to the `/newticket` top-level URL, but since 0.11, such a link will stay in the wiki namespace and therefore link to a sibling page.
142See [#Server-relativelinks] for the new syntax.
143
144=== Link anchors ===
145
146To create a link to a specific anchor in a page, use '#':
147{{{
148 [#Linkanchors Link anchors] or [[#Linkanchors|Link anchors]]
149}}}
150  [#Linkanchors Link anchors] or [[#Linkanchors|Link anchors]]
151
152Hint: when you move your mouse over the title of a section, a '¶' character will be displayed. This is a link to that specific section and you can use this to copy the `#...` part inside a relative link to an anchor.
153
154To create a link to the first or last occurrence of a term on a page, use a ''pseudo anchor'' starting with '#/' or '#?':
155{{{
156 [#/Milestone first occurrence of Milestone] or
157 [#?Milestone last occurrence of Milestone]
158}}}
159 [#/Milestone first occurrence of Milestone] or
160 [#?Milestone last occurrence of Milestone]
161This will also highlight all other matches on the linked page. By default only case sensitive matches are considered. To include case insensitive matches append '/i':
162{{{
163 [#/Milestone/i first occurrence of Milestone or milestone] or
164 [#?Milestone/i last occurrence of Milestone or milestone]
165}}}
166 [#/Milestone/i first occurrence of Milestone or milestone] or
167 [#?Milestone/i last occurrence of Milestone or milestone]
168
169''(since Trac 1.0)''
170
171Such anchors can be very useful for linking to specific lines in a file in the source browser:
172{{{
173 [trac:source:tags/trac-0.12/trac/wiki/api.py#L127 Line 127] or
174 [trac:source:tags/trac-0.12/trac/ticket/roadmap.py#L47 Line 47]
175}}}
176 [trac:source:tags/trac-0.12/trac/wiki/api.py#L127 Line 127] or
177 [trac:source:tags/trac-0.12/trac/ticket/roadmap.py#L47 Line 47]
178(Hint: The line numbers displayed in the source browser are links to anchors on the respective lines.)
179
180Since such links become outdated when the file changes, it can be useful to link using a '#/' pseudo anchor instead:
181{{{
182 [trac:source:trunk/trac/wiki/api.py#/IWikiSyntaxProvider IWikiSyntaxProvider] or
183 [trac:source:trunk/trac/env.py#/ISystemInfoProvider ISystemInfoProvider]
184}}}
185 [trac:source:trunk/trac/wiki/api.py#/IWikiSyntaxProvider IWikiSyntaxProvider] or
186 [trac:source:trunk/trac/env.py#/ISystemInfoProvider ISystemInfoProvider]
187
188=== InterWiki links ===
189
190Other prefixes can be defined freely and made to point to resources in other Web applications. The definition of those prefixes as well as the URLs of the corresponding Web applications is defined in a special Wiki page, the InterMapTxt page. Note that while this could be used to create links to other Trac environments, there's a more specialized way to register other Trac environments which offers greater flexibility.
191
192=== InterTrac links ===
193
194This can be seen as a kind of InterWiki link specialized for targeting other Trac projects.
195
196Any type of Trac link can be written in one Trac environment and actually refer to resources in another Trac environment. All that is required is to prefix the Trac link with the name of the other Trac environment followed by a colon. The other Trac environment must be registered on the InterTrac page.
197
198A distinctive advantage of InterTrac links over InterWiki links is that the shorthand form of Trac links (e.g. `{}`, `r`, `#`) can also be used. For example if T was set as an alias for Trac, links to Trac tickets can be written #T234, links to Trac changesets can be written [trac 1508].
199See InterTrac for the complete details.
200
201=== Server-relative links ===
202
203It is often useful to be able to link to objects in your project that
204have no built-in Trac linking mechanism, such as static resources, `newticket`,
205a shared `/register` page on the server, etc.
206
207To link to resources inside the project, use either an absolute path from the project root,
208or a relative link from the URL of the current page (''Changed in 0.11''):
209
210{{{
211[/newticket Create a new ticket] or [[//newticket|Create a new ticket]]
212[/ home] or [[/|home]]
213}}}
214
215Display: [/newticket Create a new ticket] or [[//newticket|Create a new ticket]]
216[/ home] or [[/|home]]
217
218To link to another location on the server (possibly outside the project but on the same host), use the `//` prefix (''Changed in 0.11''):
219
220{{{
221[//register Register Here] or [[//register|Register Here]]
222}}}
223
224Display: [//register Register Here] or [[//register|Register Here]]
225
226=== Quoting space in TracLinks ===
227
228Immediately after a TracLinks prefix, targets containing space characters should
229be enclosed in a pair of quotes or double quotes.
230Examples:
231 * !wiki:"The whitespace convention"
232 * !attachment:'the file.txt' or
233 * !attachment:"the file.txt"
234 * !attachment:"the file.txt:ticket:123"
235
236Note that by using [trac:WikiCreole] style links, it's quite natural to write links containing spaces:
237 * ![[The whitespace convention]]
238 * ![[attachment:the file.txt]]
239
240=== Escaping Links ===
241
242To prevent parsing of a !TracLink, you can escape it by preceding it with a '!' (exclamation mark).
243{{{
244 !NoLinkHere.
245 ![42] is not a link either.
246}}}
247
248Display:
249 !NoLinkHere.
250 ![42] is not a link either.
251
252
253=== Parameterized Trac links ===
254
255Many Trac resources have more than one way to be rendered, depending on some extra parameters. For example, a Wiki page can accept a `version` or a `format` parameter, a report can make use of dynamic variables, etc.
256
257Trac links can support an arbitrary set of parameters, written in the same way as they would be for the corresponding URL. Some examples:
258 - `wiki:WikiStart?format=txt`
259 - `ticket:1?version=1`
260 - `[/newticket?component=module1 create a ticket for module1]`
261 - `[/newticket?summary=Add+short+description+here create a ticket with URL with spaces]`
262
263
264== TracLinks Reference ==
265The following sections describe the individual link types in detail, as well as notes on advanced usage of links.
266
267=== attachment: links ===
268
269The link syntax for attachments is as follows:
270 * !attachment:the_file.txt creates a link to the attachment the_file.txt of the current object
271 * !attachment:the_file.txt:wiki:MyPage creates a link to the attachment the_file.txt of the !MyPage wiki page
272 * !attachment:the_file.txt:ticket:753 creates a link to the attachment the_file.txt of the ticket 753
273
274Note that the older way, putting the filename at the end, is still supported: !attachment:ticket:753:the_file.txt.
275
276If you'd like to create a direct link to the content of the attached file instead of a link to the attachment page, simply use `raw-attachment:` instead of `attachment:`.
277
278This can be useful for pointing directly to an HTML document, for example. Note that for this use case, you'd have to allow the web browser to render the content by setting `[attachment] render_unsafe_content = yes` (see TracIni#attachment-section). Caveat: only do that in environments for which you're 100% confident you can trust the people who are able to attach files, as otherwise this would open up your site to [wikipedia:Cross-site_scripting cross-site scripting] attacks.
279
280See also [#export:links].
281
282=== comment: links ===
283
284When you're inside a given ticket, you can simply write e.g. !comment:3 to link to the third change comment.
285It is possible to link to a comment of a specific ticket from anywhere using one of the following syntax:
286 - `comment:3:ticket:123`
287 - `ticket:123#comment:3` (note that you can't write `#123#!comment:3`!)
288It is also possible to link to the ticket's description using one of the following syntax:
289 - `comment:description` (within the ticket)
290 - `comment:description:ticket:123`
291 - `ticket:123#comment:description`
292
293=== htdocs: links ===
294
295Use `htdocs:path/to/file` to reference files in the `htdocs` directory of the Trac environment, the [TracEnvironment#DirectoryStructure web resource directory].
296
297=== query: links ===
298
299See TracQuery#UsingTracLinks and [#ticket:links].
300
301=== search: links ===
302
303See TracSearch#SearchLinks
304
305=== ticket: links ===
306 ''alias:'' `bug:`
307
308Besides the obvious `ticket:id` form, it is also possible to specify a list of tickets or even a range of tickets instead of the `id`. This generates a link to a custom query view containing this fixed set of tickets.
309
310Example:
311 - `ticket:5000-6000`
312 - `ticket:1,150`
313
314''(since Trac 0.11)''
315
316=== timeline: links ===
317
318Links to the timeline can be created by specifying a date in the ISO:8601 format. The date can be optionally followed by a time specification. The time is interpreted as being UTC time, but alternatively you can specify your local time, followed by your timezone if you don't want to compute the UTC time.
319
320Examples:
321 - `timeline:2008-01-29`
322 - `timeline:2008-01-29T15:48`
323 - `timeline:2008-01-29T15:48Z`
324 - `timeline:2008-01-29T16:48+01`
325
326''(since Trac 0.11)''
327
328=== wiki: links ===
329
330See WikiPageNames and [#QuotingspaceinTracLinks quoting space in TracLinks] above. It is possible to create a link to a specific page revision using the syntax WikiStart@1.
331
332=== Version Control related links ===
333
334It should be noted that multiple repository support works by creating a kind of virtual namespace for versioned files in which the toplevel folders correspond to the repository names. Therefore, in presence of multiple repositories, a ''/path'' specification in the syntax of links detailed below should start with the name of the repository. If omitted, the default repository is used. In case a toplevel folder of the default repository has the same name as a repository, the latter "wins". One can always access such folder by fully qualifying it (the default repository can be an alias of a named repository, or conversely, it is always possible to create an alias for the default repository, ask your Trac administrator).
335
336For example, `source:/trunk/COPYING` targets the path `/trunk/COPYING` in the default repository, whereas `source:/projectA/trunk/COPYING` targets the path `/trunk/COPYING` in the repository named `projectA`. This can be the same file if `'projectA'` is an alias to the default repository or if `''` (the default repository) is an alias to `'projectA'`.
337
338==== source: links ====
339 ''aliases:'' `browser:`, `repos:`
340
341The default behavior for a source:/some/path link is to open the browser in that directory directory
342if the path points to a directory or to show the latest content of the file.
343
344It's also possible to link directly to a specific revision of a file like this:
345 - `source:/some/file@123` - link to the file's revision 123
346 - `source:/some/file@head` - link explicitly to the latest revision of the file
347
348If the revision is specified, one can even link to a specific line number:
349 - `source:/some/file@123#L10`
350 - `source:/tag/0.10@head#L10`
351
352Finally, one can also highlight an arbitrary set of lines:
353 - `source:/some/file@123:10-20,100,103#L99` - highlight lines 10 to 20, and lines 100 and 103.
354   ''(since 0.11)''
355
356Note that in presence of multiple repositories, the name of the repository is simply integrated in the path you specify for `source:` (e.g. `source:reponame/trunk/README`). ''(since 0.12)''
357
358==== export: links ====
359
360To force the download of a file in the repository, as opposed to displaying it in the browser, use the `export` link.  Several forms are available:
361 * `export:/some/file` - get the HEAD revision of the specified file
362 * `export:123:/some/file` - get revision 123 of the specified file
363 * `export:/some/file@123` - get revision 123 of the specified file
364
365This can be very useful for displaying XML or HTML documentation with correct stylesheets and images, in case that has been checked in into the repository. Note that for this use case, you'd have to allow the web browser to render the content by setting `[browser] render_unsafe_content = yes` (see TracIni#browser-section), otherwise Trac will force the files to be downloaded as attachments for security concerns.
366
367If the path is to a directory in the repository instead of a specific file, the source browser will be used to display the directory (identical to the result of `source:/some/dir`).
368
369==== log: links ====
370
371The `log:` links are used to display revision ranges. In its simplest form, it can link to the latest revisions of the specified path, but it can also support displaying an arbitrary set of revisions.
372 - `log:/` - the latest revisions starting at the root of the repository
373 - `log:/trunk/tools` - the latest revisions in `trunk/tools`
374 - `log:/trunk/tools@10000` - the revisions in `trunk/tools` starting from  revision 10000
375 - `log:@20788,20791:20795` - list revision 20788 and the revisions from 20791 to 20795
376 - `log:/trunk/tools@20788,20791:20795` - list revision 20788 and the revisions from 20791 to 20795 which affect the given path
377
378There are short forms for revision ranges as well:
379 - `[20788,20791:20795]`
380 - `[20788,20791:20795/trunk/tools]`
381 - `r20791:20795` (but not `r20788,20791:20795` nor `r20791:20795/trunk`)
382
383Finally, note that in all of the above, a revision range can be written either as `x:y` or `x-y`.
384
385In the presence of multiple repositories, the name of the repository should be specified as the first part of the path, e.g. `log:repos/branches` or `[20-40/repos]`.
386
387----
388See also: WikiFormatting, TracWiki, WikiPageNames, InterTrac, InterWiki
389 
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.