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1= Trac Reports =
2[[TracGuideToc]]
3
4The Trac reports module provides a simple, yet powerful reporting facility
5to present information about tickets in the Trac database.
6
7Rather than have its own report definition format, TracReports relies on standard SQL
8`SELECT` statements for custom report definition.
9
10  '''Note:''' ''The report module is being phased out in its current form because it seriously limits the ability of the Trac team to make adjustments to the underlying database schema. We believe that the [wiki:TracQuery query module] is a good replacement that provides more flexibility and better usability. While there are certain reports that cannot yet be handled by the query module, we intend to further enhance it so that at some point the reports module can be completely removed. This also means that there will be no major enhancements to the report module anymore.''
11
12  ''You can already completely replace the reports module by the query module simply by disabling the former in [wiki:TracIni trac.ini]:''
13  {{{
14  [components]
15  trac.ticket.report.* = disabled
16  }}}
17  ''This will make the query module the default handler for the “View Tickets” navigation item. We encourage you to try this configuration and report back what kind of features of reports you are missing, if any.''
18
19A report consists of these basic parts:
20 * '''ID''' — Unique (sequential) identifier
21 * '''Title''' — Descriptive title
22 * '''Description''' — A brief description of the report, in WikiFormatting text.
23 * '''Report Body''' — List of results from report query, formatted according to the methods described below.
24 * '''Footer''' — Links to alternative download formats for this report.
25
26== Changing Sort Order ==
27Simple reports - ungrouped reports to be specific - can be changed to be sorted by any column simply by clicking the column header.
28
29If a column header is a hyperlink (red), click the column you would like to sort by. Clicking the same header again reverses the order.
30
31== Changing Report Numbering ==
32There may be instances where you need to change the ID of the report, perhaps to organize the reports better. At present this requires changes to the trac database. The ''report'' table has the following schema:
33 * id integer PRIMARY KEY
34 * author text
35 * title text
36 * query text
37 * description text
38Changing the ID changes the shown order and number in the ''Available Reports'' list and the report's perma-link. This is done by running something like:
39{{{
40update report set id=5 where id=3;
41}}}
42Keep in mind that the integrity has to be maintained (i.e., ID has to be unique, and you don't want to exceed the max, since that's managed by SQLite someplace).
43
44You may also need to update or remove the report number stored in the report or query.
45
46== Navigating Tickets ==
47Clicking on one of the report results will take you to that ticket. You can navigate through the results by clicking the ''Next Ticket'' or ''Previous Ticket'' links just below the main menu bar, or click the ''Back to Report'' link to return to the report page.
48
49You can safely edit any of the tickets and continue to navigate through the results using the ''!Next/Previous/Back to Report'' links after saving your results, but when you return to the report, there will be no hint about what has changed, as would happen if you were navigating a list of tickets obtained from a query (see TracQuery#NavigatingTickets).
50
51== Alternative Download Formats ==
52Aside from the default HTML view, reports can also be exported in a number of alternative formats.
53At the bottom of the report page, you will find a list of available data formats. Click the desired link to
54download the alternative report format.
55
56=== Comma-delimited - CSV (Comma Separated Values) ===
57Export the report as plain text, each row on its own line, columns separated by a single comma (',').
58'''Note:''' The output is fully escaped so carriage returns, line feeds, and commas will be preserved in the output.
59
60=== Tab-delimited ===
61Like above, but uses tabs (\t) instead of comma.
62
63=== RSS - XML Content Syndication ===
64All reports support syndication using XML/RSS 2.0. To subscribe to an RSS feed, click the orange 'XML' icon at the bottom of the page. See TracRss for general information on RSS support in Trac.
65
66----
67
68== Creating Custom Reports ==
69
70''Creating a custom report requires a comfortable knowledge of SQL.''
71
72'''Note that you need to set up [TracPermissions#Reports permissions] in order to see the buttons for adding or editing reports.'''
73
74A report is basically a single named SQL query, executed and presented by
75Trac.  Reports can be viewed and created from a custom SQL expression directly
76in the web interface.
77
78Typically, a report consists of a SELECT-expression from the 'ticket' table,
79using the available columns and sorting the way you want it.
80
81== Ticket columns ==
82The ''ticket'' table has the following columns:
83 * id
84 * type
85 * time
86 * changetime
87 * component
88 * severity 
89 * priority
90 * owner
91 * reporter
92 * cc
93 * version
94 * milestone
95 * status
96 * resolution
97 * summary
98 * description
99 * keywords
100
101See TracTickets for a detailed description of the column fields.
102
103Example: '''All active tickets, sorted by priority and time'''
104{{{
105SELECT id AS ticket, status, severity, priority, owner,
106       time AS created, summary FROM ticket
107  WHERE status IN ('new', 'assigned', 'reopened')
108  ORDER BY priority, time
109}}}
110
111Dynamic variables can also be used in the report title and description (since 1.1.1).
112
113== Advanced Reports: Dynamic Variables ==
114For more flexible reports, Trac supports the use of ''dynamic variables'' in report SQL statements.
115In short, dynamic variables are ''special'' strings that are replaced by custom data before query execution.
116
117=== Using Variables in a Query ===
118The syntax for dynamic variables is simple, any upper case word beginning with '$' is considered a variable.
119
120Example:
121{{{
122SELECT id AS ticket,summary FROM ticket WHERE priority=$PRIORITY
123}}}
124
125To assign a value to $PRIORITY when viewing the report, you must define it as an argument in the report URL, leaving out the leading '$'.
126
127Example:
128{{{
129 http://trac.edgewall.org/reports/14?PRIORITY=high
130}}}
131
132To use multiple variables, separate them with an '&'.
133
134Example:
135{{{
136 http://trac.edgewall.org/reports/14?PRIORITY=high&SEVERITY=critical
137}}}
138
139
140=== !Special/Constant Variables ===
141There is one dynamic variable whose value is set automatically (the URL does not have to be changed) to allow practical reports.
142
143 * $USER — Username of logged in user.
144
145Example (''List all tickets assigned to me''):
146{{{
147SELECT id AS ticket,summary FROM ticket WHERE owner=$USER
148}}}
149
150
151
152== Advanced Reports: Custom Formatting ==
153Trac is also capable of more advanced reports, including custom layouts,
154result grouping and user-defined CSS styles. To create such reports, we'll use
155specialized SQL statements to control the output of the Trac report engine.
156
157=== Special Columns ===
158To format reports, TracReports looks for 'magic' column names in the query
159result. These 'magic' names are processed and affect the layout and style of the
160final report.
161
162=== Automatically formatted columns ===
163 * '''ticket''' — Ticket ID number. Becomes a hyperlink to that ticket.
164 * '''id''' — same as '''ticket''' above when '''realm''' is not set
165 * '''realm''' — together with '''id''', can be used to create links to other resources than tickets (e.g. a realm of ''wiki'' and an ''id'' to a page name will create a link to that wiki page)
166   - for some kind of resources, it may be necessary to specify their ''parent'' resources (e.g. for ''changeset'', which ''repos'') and this can be achieved using the '''parent_realm''' and '''parent_id''' columns
167 * '''created, modified, date, time''' — Format cell as a date and/or time.
168 * '''description''' — Ticket description field, parsed through the wiki engine.
169
170'''Example:'''
171{{{
172SELECT id AS ticket, created, status, summary FROM ticket
173}}}
174
175Those columns can also be defined but marked as hidden, see [#column-syntax below].
176
177See trac:wiki/CookBook/Configuration/Reports for some example of creating reports for realms other than ''ticket''.
178
179=== Custom formatting columns ===
180Columns whose names begin and end with 2 underscores (Example: '''`__color__`''') are
181assumed to be ''formatting hints'', affecting the appearance of the row.
182 
183 * '''`__group__`''' — Group results based on values in this column. Each group will have its own header and table.
184 * '''`__grouplink__`''' — Make the header of each group a link to the specified URL. The URL is taken from the first row of each group.
185 * '''`__color__`''' — Should be a numeric value ranging from 1 to 5 to select a pre-defined row color. Typically used to color rows by issue priority.
186{{{
187#!html
188<div style="margin-left:7.5em">Defaults:
189<span style="border: none; color: #333; background: transparent;  font-size: 85%; background: #fdc; border-color: #e88; color: #a22">Color 1</span>
190<span style="border: none; color: #333; background: transparent;  font-size: 85%; background: #ffb; border-color: #eea; color: #880">Color 2</span>
191<span style="border: none; color: #333; background: transparent;  font-size: 85%; background: #fbfbfb; border-color: #ddd; color: #444">Color 3</span>
192<span style="border: none; color: #333; background: transparent; font-size: 85%; background: #e7ffff; border-color: #cee; color: #099">Color 4</span>
193<span style="border: none; color: #333; background: transparent;  font-size: 85%; background: #e7eeff; border-color: #cde; color: #469">Color 5</span>
194</div>
195}}}
196 * '''`__style__`''' — A custom CSS style expression to use on the `<tr>` element of the current row.
197 * '''`__class__`''' — Zero or more space-separated CSS class names to be set on the `<tr>` element of the current row. These classes are added to the class name derived from `__color__` and the odd / even indicator.
198
199'''Example:''' ''List active tickets, grouped by milestone, group header linked to milestone page, colored by priority''
200{{{
201SELECT p.value AS __color__,
202     t.milestone AS __group__,
203     '../milestone/' || t.milestone AS __grouplink__,
204     (CASE owner WHEN 'daniel' THEN 'font-weight: bold; background: red;' ELSE '' END) AS __style__,
205       t.id AS ticket, summary
206  FROM ticket t,enum p
207  WHERE t.status IN ('new', 'assigned', 'reopened')
208    AND p.name=t.priority AND p.type='priority'
209  ORDER BY t.milestone, p.value, t.severity, t.time
210}}}
211
212'''Note:''' A table join is used to match ''ticket'' priorities with their
213numeric representation from the ''enum'' table.
214
215=== Changing layout of report rows === #column-syntax
216By default, all columns on each row are display on a single row in the HTML
217report, possibly formatted according to the descriptions above. However, it's
218also possible to create multi-line report entries.
219
220 * '''`column_`''' — ''Break row after this''. By appending an underscore ('_') to the column name, the remaining columns will be continued on a second line.
221
222 * '''`_column_`''' — ''Full row''. By adding an underscore ('_') both at the beginning and the end of a column name, the data will be shown on a separate row.
223
224 * '''`_column`''' — ''Hide data''. Prepending an underscore ('_') to a column name instructs Trac to hide the contents from the HTML output. This is useful for information to be visible only if downloaded in other formats (like CSV or RSS/XML).
225   This can be used to hide any kind of column, even important ones required for identifying the resource, e.g. `id as _id` will hide the '''Id''' column but the link to the ticket will be present.
226
227'''Example:''' ''List active tickets, grouped by milestone, colored by priority, with  description and multi-line layout''
228
229{{{
230SELECT p.value AS __color__,
231       t.milestone AS __group__,
232       (CASE owner
233          WHEN 'daniel' THEN 'font-weight: bold; background: red;'
234          ELSE '' END) AS __style__,
235       t.id AS ticket, summary AS summary_,             -- ## Break line here
236       component,version, severity, milestone, status, owner,
237       time AS created, changetime AS modified,         -- ## Dates are formatted
238       description AS _description_,                    -- ## Uses a full row
239       changetime AS _changetime, reporter AS _reporter -- ## Hidden from HTML output
240  FROM ticket t,enum p
241  WHERE t.status IN ('new', 'assigned', 'reopened')
242    AND p.name=t.priority AND p.type='priority'
243  ORDER BY t.milestone, p.value, t.severity, t.time
244}}}
245
246=== Reporting on custom fields ===
247
248If you have added custom fields to your tickets (see TracTicketsCustomFields), you can write a SQL query to cover them. You'll need to make a join on the ticket_custom table, but this isn't especially easy.
249
250If you have tickets in the database ''before'' you declare the extra fields in trac.ini, there will be no associated data in the ticket_custom table. To get around this, use SQL's "LEFT OUTER JOIN" clauses. See [trac:TracIniReportCustomFieldSample TracIniReportCustomFieldSample] for some examples.
251
252=== A note about SQL rewriting #rewriting
253
254Beyond the relatively trivial replacement of dynamic variables, the SQL query is also altered in order to support two features of the reports:
255 1. [#sort-order changing the sort order]
256 2. pagination support (limitation of the number of result rows displayed on each page)
257In order to support the first feature, the sort column is inserted in the `ORDER BY` clause in the first position or in the second position if a `__group__` column is specified (an `ORDER BY` clause is created if needed). In order to support pagination, a `LIMIT ... OFFSET ...` clause is appended.
258The query might be too complex for the automatic rewrite to work correctly, resulting in an erroneous query. In this case you still have the possibility to control exactly how the rewrite is done by manually inserting the following tokens:
259 - `@SORT_COLUMN@`, the place where the name of the selected sort column will be inserted,
260 - `@LIMIT_OFFSET@`, the place where the pagination support clause will be added
261Note that if you write them after an SQL comment, `--`, you'll effectively disable rewriting if this is what you want!
262
263Let's take an example, consider the following SQL query:
264{{{
265-- ## 4: Assigned, Active Tickets by Owner ## --
266
267--
268-- List assigned tickets, group by ticket owner, sorted by priority.
269--
270
271SELECT p.value AS __color__,
272   owner AS __group__,
273   id AS ticket, summary, component, milestone, t.type AS type, severity, time AS created,
274   changetime AS _changetime, description AS _description,
275   reporter AS _reporter
276  FROM ticket t,enum p
277  WHERE status = 'assigned'
278AND p.name=t.priority AND p.type='priority'
279  ORDER BY __group__, p.value, severity, time
280}}}
281
282The automatic rewrite will be the following (4 rows per page, page 2, sorted by `component`):
283{{{
284SELECT p.value AS __color__,
285   owner AS __group__,
286   id AS ticket, summary, component, milestone, t.type AS type, severity, time AS created,
287   changetime AS _changetime, description AS _description,
288   reporter AS _reporter
289  FROM ticket t,enum p
290  WHERE status = 'assigned'
291AND p.name=t.priority AND p.type='priority'
292  ORDER BY __group__ ASC, `component` ASC,  __group__, p.value, severity, time
293 LIMIT 4 OFFSET 4
294}}}
295
296The equivalent SQL query with the rewrite tokens would have been:
297{{{
298SELECT p.value AS __color__,
299   owner AS __group__,
300   id AS ticket, summary, component, milestone, t.type AS type, severity, time AS created,
301   changetime AS _changetime, description AS _description,
302   reporter AS _reporter
303  FROM ticket t,enum p
304  WHERE status = 'assigned'
305AND p.name=t.priority AND p.type='priority'
306  ORDER BY __group__, @SORT_COLUMN@, p.value, severity, time
307@LIMIT_OFFSET@
308}}}
309
310If you want to always sort first by priority and only then by the user selected sort column, simply use the following `ORDER BY` clause:
311{{{
312  ORDER BY __group__, p.value, @SORT_COLUMN@, severity, time
313}}}
314
315----
316See also: TracTickets, TracQuery, TracGuide, [http://www.sqlite.org/lang_expr.html Query Language Understood by SQLite]
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.