# source:wiki/pages/TracStandalone@28798

Last change on this file since 28798 was 26484, checked in by obi, 6 years ago

File size: 16.2 KB
Line
1= Tracd =
2
3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
5
6== Pros ==
7
8 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
10 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
11
12== Cons ==
13
14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
15 * No native HTTPS support: [http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ sslwrap] can be used instead,
16   or [http://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
17
18== Usage examples ==
19
20A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)
21{{{
22 $tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project 23}}} 24Stricly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use ''--hostname'' option. 25{{{ 26$ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
27}}}
28With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
29{{{
30 $tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2 31}}} 32 33You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since Trac uses that name to keep the URLs of the 34different projects unique. So if you use /project1/path/to and /project2/path/to, you will only see the second project. 35 36An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the -e option. The example above could be rewritten: 37{{{ 38$ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
39}}}
40
41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use {{{CTRL-BREAK}}} -- using {{{CTRL-C}}} will leave a Python process running in the background.
42
43== Installing as a Windows Service ==
44
45=== Option 1 ===
46To install as a Windows service, get the [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY] utility and run:
47{{{
48 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
49 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py\" <your tracd parameters>"
50 net start tracd
51}}}
52
53'''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{tracd-script.py}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}.
54
55If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
56{{{
57 sc config tracd start= auto
58}}}
59
60The spacing here is important.
61
62{{{#!div
63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the reg add command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
64HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters
65
66Three (string) parameters are provided:
67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ ||
68||Application ||python.exe ||
69||!AppParameters ||scripts\tracd-script.py -p 8080 ... ||
70
71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
73}}}
74
75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [http://www.google.com/search?q=winserv.exe WINSERV] utility and run:
76{{{
77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py <your tracd parameters>"
78
79net start tracd
80}}}
81
82=== Option 2 ===
83
84Use [http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/WindowsServiceScript WindowsServiceScript], available at [http://trac-hacks.org/ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
85
86=== Option 3 ===
87
88also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
89{{{
90$cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects' 91$ net start tracd
92}}}
93
94== Using Authentication ==
95
96Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (htpasswd and htdigest) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without htpasswd or htdigest; see below for alternatives)
97
98Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace --auth with --basic-auth in the command line.
99
100The general format for using authentication is:
101{{{
102 $tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path 103}}} 104where: 105 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows: 106 * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the project_path 107 * when serving only a single project (-s): the name of the project directory 108 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows. 109 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file 110 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything) 111 * '''project_path''': path of the project 112 113 * **--auth** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace --auth with --basic-auth if you want to use Basic auth. Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name. 114 115Examples: 116 117{{{ 118$ tracd -p 8080 \
120}}}
121
122Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
123{{{
124 $tracd -p 8080 \ 125 --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \ 126 --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \ 127 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2 128}}} 129 130Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name: 131{{{ 132$ tracd -p 8080 \
133   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com" \
134   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
135}}}
136
137=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file ===
138This section describes how to use tracd with Apache .htpasswd files.
139
140  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to
141  decode some htpasswd formats.  Trac source code attempt an import crypt first, but there
142  is no such package for Python 2.6. Only SHA-1 passwords (since Trac 1.0) work without this module.
143
144To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's htpasswd command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
145{{{
146 $sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username 147}}} 148then for additional users: 149{{{ 150$ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
151}}}
152
153Then to start tracd run something like this:
154{{{
155 $tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="projectdirname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /fullpath/environmentname 156}}} 157 158For example: 159{{{ 160$ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="testenv,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /srv/tracenv/testenv
161}}}
162''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
163
164=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file ===
165
166If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like users.htdigest it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
167
168Note that you can start tracd without the --auth argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
169
170=== Generating Passwords Without Apache ===
171
172Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://aspirine.org/htpasswd_en.html online HTTP Password generator] which also supports SHA-1.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd ; Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
173
174You can use this simple Python script to generate a '''digest''' password file:
175
176{{{
177#!python
178from optparse import OptionParser
179# The md5 module is deprecated in Python 2.5
180try:
181    from hashlib import md5
182except ImportError:
183    from md5 import md5
184realm = 'trac'
185
186# build the options
187usage = "usage: %prog [options]"
188parser = OptionParser(usage=usage)
193parser.add_option("-r", "--realm",action="store", dest="realm", type = "string",
194                  help="the realm in which to create the digest")
195(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
196
197# check options
200if (options.realm is not None):
201   realm = options.realm
202
203# Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file
204kd = lambda x: md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
206}}}
207
208Note: If you use the above script you must set the realm in the --auth argument to '''trac'''. Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py):
209
210{{{
211 $python trac-digest.py -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt 212$ tracd --port 8000 --auth=proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name
213}}}
214
215==== Using md5sum
216It is possible to use md5sum utility to generate digest-password file:
217{{{
218user=
219realm=
222echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file} 223}}} 224 225== Reference == 226 227Here's the online help, as a reminder (tracd --help): 228{{{ 229Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ... 230 231Options: 232 --version show program's version number and exit 233 -h, --help show this help message and exit 234 -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH 235 [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm] 236 --basic-auth=BASICAUTH 237 [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm] 238 -p PORT, --port=PORT the port number to bind to 239 -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME 240 the host name or IP address to bind to 241 --protocol=PROTOCOL http|scgi|ajp|fcgi 242 -q, --unquote unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp) 243 --http10 use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1 244 --http11 use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default) 245 -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR 246 parent directory of the project environments 247 --base-path=BASE_PATH 248 the initial portion of the request URL's "path" 249 -r, --auto-reload restart automatically when sources are modified 250 -s, --single-env only serve a single project without the project list 251 -d, --daemonize run in the background as a daemon 252 --pidfile=PIDFILE when daemonizing, file to which to write pid 253 --umask=MASK when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in 254 octal notation (default 022) 255 --group=GROUP the group to run as 256 --user=USER the user to run as 257}}} 258 259Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started. 260 261== Tips == 262 263=== Serving static content === 264 265If tracd is the only web server used for the project, 266it can also be used to distribute static content 267(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.) 268 269This static content should be put in the $TRAC_ENV/htdocs folder,
270and is accessed by URLs like <project_URL>/chrome/site/....
272Example: given a $TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz file, 273the corresponding relative URL would be /<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz, 274which in turn can be written as htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz (TracLinks syntax) or [/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz] (relative link syntax). 275 276 ''Support for htdocs: TracLinks syntax was added in version 0.10'' 277 278=== Using tracd behind a proxy 279 280In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server. 281 282In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the [trac] use_base_url_for_redirect to true can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of [trac] base_url for doing the redirects. 283 284If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with tracd (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the --unquote parameter. 285 286See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe]. 287 288=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy 289It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using {{{--basic-auth}}}. There is some discussion about this in #9206. 290 291Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap. 292 293First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace. 294 295{{{ 296<Location /project/proxified> 297 Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,dc=domain.com 298 Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo 299 ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/ 300 # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all 301 RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s 302</Location> 303}}} 304 305Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''remote-user-auth.py''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory: 306{{{ 307#!python 308from trac.core import * 309from trac.config import BoolOption 310from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator 311 312class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component): 313 314 implements(IAuthenticator) 315 316 obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false', 317 """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins 318 (''since ??.??').""") 319 320 def authenticate(self, req): 321 if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'): 322 return req.get_header('Remote-User') 323 return None 324 325}}} 326 327Add this new parameter to your TracIni: 328{{{ 329... 330[trac] 331... 332obey_remote_user_header = true 333... 334}}} 335 336Run tracd: 337{{{ 338tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified 339}}} 340 341Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini. 342 343Global config (e.g. /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini): 344{{{ 345[components] 346remote-user-auth.* = enabled 347[inherit] 348plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins 349[trac] 350obey_remote_user_header = true 351}}} 352 353Environment config (e.g. /srv/trac/envs/myenv): 354{{{ 355[inherit] 356file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini 357}}} 358 359=== Serving a different base path than / === 360Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is 361{{{ 362$ tracd --base-path=/some/path