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1= Tracd
2
3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
5
6== Pros
7
8 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
10 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
11
12== Cons
13
14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
15 * No native HTTPS support: [http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ sslwrap] can be used instead,
16   or [trac:wiki:STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
17
18== Usage examples
19
20A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)
21{{{#!sh
22 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
23}}}
24Strictly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use the `--hostname` option.
25{{{#!sh
26 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
27}}}
28With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
29{{{#!sh
30 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
31}}}
32
33You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since Trac uses that name to keep the URLs of the
34different projects unique. So if you use `/project1/path/to` and `/project2/path/to`, you will only see the second project.
35
36An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten:
37{{{#!sh
38 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
39}}}
40
41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use `CTRL-BREAK` -- using `CTRL-C` will leave a Python process running in the background.
42
43== Installing as a Windows Service
44
45=== Option 1
46To install as a Windows service, get the [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY] utility and run:
47{{{#!cmd
48 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
49 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py\" <your tracd parameters>"
50 net start tracd
51}}}
52
53'''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{tracd-script.py}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}.
54
55If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
56{{{#!cmd
57 sc config tracd start= auto
58}}}
59
60The spacing here is important.
61
62{{{#!div
63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
64`HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters`
65
66Three (string) parameters are provided:
67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ ||
68||Application ||python.exe ||
69||!AppParameters ||scripts\tracd-script.py -p 8080 ... ||
70
71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
73}}}
74
75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [http://www.google.com/search?q=winserv.exe WINSERV] utility and run:
76{{{#!cmd
77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py <your tracd parameters>"
78net start tracd
79}}}
80
81=== Option 2
82
83Use [http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/WindowsServiceScript WindowsServiceScript], available at [http://trac-hacks.org/ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
84
85=== Option 3
86
87also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
88{{{#!sh
89$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
90$ net start tracd
91}}}
92
93== Using Authentication
94
95Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (`htpasswd` and `htdigest`) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without `htpasswd` or `htdigest`; see below for alternatives)
96
97Make sure you place the generated password files on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac will monitor their modified time and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution (like `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX).
98
99Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
100
101The general format for using authentication is:
102{{{#!sh
103 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
104}}}
105where:
106 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
107   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
108   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory
109 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows.
110 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file
111 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
112 * '''project_path''': path of the project
113
114 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
115
116Examples:
117
118{{{#!sh
119 $ tracd -p 8080 \
120   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" /path/to/project1
121}}}
122
123Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
124{{{#!sh
125 $ tracd -p 8080 \
126   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
127   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
128   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
129}}}
130
131Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
132{{{#!sh
133 $ tracd -p 8080 \
134   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com" \
135   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
136}}}
137
138=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file
139This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
140
141  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to
142  decode some htpasswd formats.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there
143  is no such package for Python 2.6. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0) work without this module.
144
145To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
146{{{#!sh
147 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
148}}}
149then for additional users:
150{{{#!sh
151 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
152}}}
153
154Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
155{{{#!sh
156 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /path/to/project
157}}}
158
159For example:
160{{{#!sh
161 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /path/to/project
162}}}
163''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
164
165=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file
166
167If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
168
169Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
170
171=== Generating Passwords Without Apache
172
173Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://aspirine.org/htpasswd_en.html online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd. Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
174
175Trac also provides `htpasswd` and `htdigest` scripts in `contrib`:
176{{{#!sh
177$ ./contrib/htpasswd.py -cb htpasswd user1 user1
178$ ./contrib/htpasswd.py -b htpasswd user2 user2
179}}}
180
181{{{#!sh
182$ ./contrib/htdigest.py -cb htdigest trac user1 user1
183$ ./contrib/htdigest.py -b htdigest trac user2 user2
184}}}
185
186==== Using `md5sum`
187It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
188{{{#!sh
189user=
190realm=
191password=
192path_to_file=
193echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
194}}}
195
196== Reference
197
198Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
199{{{
200Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ...
201
202Options:
203  --version             show program's version number and exit
204  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
205  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH
206                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm]
207  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH
208                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm]
209  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to
210  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
211                        the host name or IP address to bind to
212  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi
213  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
214  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1
215  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default)
216  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
217                        parent directory of the project environments
218  --base-path=BASE_PATH
219                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path"
220  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
221  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
222  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
223  --pidfile=PIDFILE     when daemonizing, file to which to write pid
224  --umask=MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
225                        octal notation (default 022)
226  --group=GROUP         the group to run as
227  --user=USER           the user to run as
228}}}
229
230Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
231
232== Tips
233
234=== Serving static content
235
236If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
237it can also be used to distribute static content
238(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)
239
240This static content should be put in the `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs` folder,
241and is accessed by URLs like `<project_URL>/chrome/site/...`.
242
243Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
244the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
245which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
246
247=== Using tracd behind a proxy
248
249In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server.
250
251In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
252
253If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter.
254
255See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
256
257=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
258It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using `--basic-auth`. There is some discussion about this in [trac:#9206].
259
260Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
261
262First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
263
264{{{#!apache
265<Location /project/proxified>
266        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,dc=domain.com
267        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
268        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
269        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
270        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
271</Location>
272}}}
273
274Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''remote-user-auth.py''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
275{{{#!python
276from trac.core import *
277from trac.config import BoolOption
278from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
279
280class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
281
282    implements(IAuthenticator)
283
284    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
285               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
286                (''since ??.??').""")
287
288    def authenticate(self, req):
289        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
290            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
291        return None
292
293}}}
294
295Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
296{{{#!ini
297[trac]
298...
299obey_remote_user_header = true
300...
301}}}
302
303Run tracd:
304{{{#!sh
305tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
306}}}
307
308Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini.
309
310Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`):
311{{{#!ini
312[components]
313remote-user-auth.* = enabled
314[inherit]
315plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins
316[trac]
317obey_remote_user_header = true
318}}}
319
320Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`):
321{{{#!ini
322[inherit]
323file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini
324}}}
325
326=== Serving a different base path than /
327Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
328{{{#!sh
329 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
330}}}
331
332----
333See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.