source: wiki/pages/TracStandalone @ 43921

Last change on this file since 43921 was 43921, checked in by aafsvn, 3 years ago

[titan] autoupdate wiki files

File size: 15.2 KB
Line 
1= Tracd
2
3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
5
6== Pros
7
8 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
10 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
11
12== Cons
13
14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
15 * No native HTTPS support: [http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ sslwrap] can be used instead,
16   or [trac:wiki:STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
17
18== Usage examples
19
20A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)
21{{{#!sh
22 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
23}}}
24Strictly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use the `--hostname` option.
25{{{#!sh
26 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
27}}}
28With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
29{{{#!sh
30 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
31}}}
32
33You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since Trac uses that name to keep the URLs of the
34different projects unique. So if you use `/project1/path/to` and `/project2/path/to`, you will only see the second project.
35
36An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten:
37{{{#!sh
38 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
39}}}
40
41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use `CTRL-BREAK` -- using `CTRL-C` will leave a Python process running in the background.
42
43== Installing as a Windows Service
44
45=== Option 1
46To install as a Windows service, get the [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY] utility and run:
47{{{#!cmd
48 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
49 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py\" <your tracd parameters>"
50 net start tracd
51}}}
52
53'''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{tracd-script.py}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}.
54
55If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
56{{{#!cmd
57 sc config tracd start= auto
58}}}
59
60The spacing here is important.
61
62{{{#!div
63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
64`HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters`
65
66Three (string) parameters are provided:
67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ ||
68||Application ||python.exe ||
69||!AppParameters ||scripts\tracd-script.py -p 8080 ... ||
70
71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
73}}}
74
75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [http://www.google.com/search?q=winserv.exe WINSERV] utility and run:
76{{{#!cmd
77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py <your tracd parameters>"
78net start tracd
79}}}
80
81=== Option 2
82
83Use [http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/WindowsServiceScript WindowsServiceScript], available at [http://trac-hacks.org/ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
84
85=== Option 3
86
87also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
88{{{#!sh
89$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
90$ net start tracd
91}}}
92
93== Using Authentication
94
95Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (`htpasswd` and `htdigest`) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without `htpasswd` or `htdigest`; see below for alternatives)
96
97{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
98**Attention:** Make sure you place the generated password files on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac will monitor their modified time and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution (like `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX).
99}}}
100
101Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
102
103The general format for using authentication is:
104{{{#!sh
105 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
106}}}
107where:
108 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
109   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
110   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory
111 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows.
112 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file
113 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
114 * '''project_path''': path of the project
115
116 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
117
118Examples:
119
120{{{#!sh
121 $ tracd -p 8080 \
122   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" /path/to/project1
123}}}
124
125Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
126{{{#!sh
127 $ tracd -p 8080 \
128   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
129   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
130   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
131}}}
132
133Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
134{{{#!sh
135 $ tracd -p 8080 \
136   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com" \
137   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
138}}}
139
140=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file
141This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
142
143  Note: On Windows It is necessary to install the [https://pypi.python.org/pypi/passlib passlib]
144  package in order to decode some htpasswd formats. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0)
145  work without this module.
146
147To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
148{{{#!sh
149 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
150}}}
151then for additional users:
152{{{#!sh
153 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
154}}}
155
156Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
157{{{#!sh
158 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /path/to/project
159}}}
160
161For example:
162{{{#!sh
163 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /path/to/project
164}}}
165''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
166
167=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file
168
169If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
170
171Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
172
173=== Generating Passwords Without Apache
174
175Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://aspirine.org/htpasswd_en.html online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd. Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
176
177Trac also provides `htpasswd` and `htdigest` scripts in `contrib`:
178{{{#!sh
179$ ./contrib/htpasswd.py -cb htpasswd user1 user1
180$ ./contrib/htpasswd.py -b htpasswd user2 user2
181}}}
182
183{{{#!sh
184$ ./contrib/htdigest.py -cb htdigest trac user1 user1
185$ ./contrib/htdigest.py -b htdigest trac user2 user2
186}}}
187
188==== Using `md5sum`
189It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
190{{{#!sh
191user=
192realm=
193password=
194path_to_file=
195echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
196}}}
197
198== Reference
199
200Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
201{{{
202Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ...
203
204Options:
205  --version             show program's version number and exit
206  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
207  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH
208                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm]
209  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH
210                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm]
211  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to
212  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
213                        the host name or IP address to bind to
214  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi
215  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
216  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1
217  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default)
218  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
219                        parent directory of the project environments
220  --base-path=BASE_PATH
221                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path"
222  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
223  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
224  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
225  --pidfile=PIDFILE     when daemonizing, file to which to write pid
226  --umask=MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
227                        octal notation (default 022)
228  --group=GROUP         the group to run as
229  --user=USER           the user to run as
230}}}
231
232Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
233
234== Tips
235
236=== Serving static content
237
238If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
239it can also be used to distribute static content
240(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)
241
242This static content should be put in the `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs` folder,
243and is accessed by URLs like `<project_URL>/chrome/site/...`.
244
245Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
246the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
247which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
248
249=== Using tracd behind a proxy
250
251In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server.
252
253In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
254
255If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter.
256
257See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
258
259=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
260It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using `--basic-auth`. There is some discussion about this in [trac:#9206].
261
262Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
263
264First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
265
266{{{#!apache
267<Location /project/proxified>
268        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,dc=domain.com
269        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
270        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
271        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
272        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
273</Location>
274}}}
275
276Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''remote-user-auth.py''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
277{{{#!python
278from trac.core import *
279from trac.config import BoolOption
280from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
281
282class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
283
284    implements(IAuthenticator)
285
286    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
287               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
288                (''since ??.??').""")
289
290    def authenticate(self, req):
291        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
292            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
293        return None
294
295}}}
296
297Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
298{{{#!ini
299[trac]
300...
301obey_remote_user_header = true
302...
303}}}
304
305Run tracd:
306{{{#!sh
307tracd -p 8101 -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
308}}}
309
310Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini.
311
312Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`):
313{{{#!ini
314[components]
315remote-user-auth.* = enabled
316[inherit]
317plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins
318[trac]
319obey_remote_user_header = true
320}}}
321
322Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`):
323{{{#!ini
324[inherit]
325file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini
326}}}
327
328=== Serving a different base path than /
329Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
330{{{#!sh
331 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
332}}}
333
334----
335See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.