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  • wiki/pages/TracStandalone

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    1 = Tracd
    3 Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
    4 It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
    6 == Pros
    8  * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
    9  * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
    10  * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
    12 == Cons
    14  * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
    15  * No native HTTPS support: [http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ sslwrap] can be used instead,
    16    or [trac:wiki:STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
    18 == Usage examples
    20 A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)
    21 {{{#!sh
    22  $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
    23 }}}
    24 Strictly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use the `--hostname` option.
    25 {{{#!sh
    26  $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
    27 }}}
    28 With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
    29 {{{#!sh
    30  $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    31 }}}
    33 You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since Trac uses that name to keep the URLs of the
    34 different projects unique. So if you use `/project1/path/to` and `/project2/path/to`, you will only see the second project.
    36 An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten:
    37 {{{#!sh
    38  $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
    39 }}}
    41 To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use `CTRL-BREAK` -- using `CTRL-C` will leave a Python process running in the background.
    43 == Installing as a Windows Service
    45 === Option 1
    46 To install as a Windows service, get the [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY] utility and run:
    47 {{{#!cmd
    48  C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
    49  reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py\" <your tracd parameters>"
    50  net start tracd
    51 }}}
    53 '''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{tracd-script.py}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}.
    55 If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
    56 {{{#!cmd
    57  sc config tracd start= auto
    58 }}}
    60 The spacing here is important.
    62 {{{#!div
    63 Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
    64 `HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters`
    66 Three (string) parameters are provided:
    67 ||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ ||
    68 ||Application ||python.exe ||
    69 ||!AppParameters ||scripts\tracd-script.py -p 8080 ... ||
    71 Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
    72 (This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
    73 }}}
    75 For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [http://www.google.com/search?q=winserv.exe WINSERV] utility and run:
    76 {{{#!cmd
    77 "C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py <your tracd parameters>"
    78 net start tracd
    79 }}}
    81 === Option 2
    83 Use [http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/WindowsServiceScript WindowsServiceScript], available at [http://trac-hacks.org/ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
    85 === Option 3
    87 also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
    88 {{{#!sh
    89 $ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
    90 $ net start tracd
    91 }}}
    93 == Using Authentication
    95 Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (`htpasswd` and `htdigest`) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without `htpasswd` or `htdigest`; see below for alternatives)
    97 Make sure you place the generated password files on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac will monitor their modified time and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution (like `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX).
    99 Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
    101 The general format for using authentication is:
    102 {{{#!sh
    103  $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
    104 }}}
    105 where:
    106  * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
    107    * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
    108    * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory
    109  Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows.
    110  * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file
    111  * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
    112  * '''project_path''': path of the project
    114  * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
    116 Examples:
    118 {{{#!sh
    119  $ tracd -p 8080 \
    120    --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" /path/to/project1
    121 }}}
    123 Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
    124 {{{#!sh
    125  $ tracd -p 8080 \
    126    --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
    127    --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
    128    /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    129 }}}
    131 Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
    132 {{{#!sh
    133  $ tracd -p 8080 \
    134    --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com" \
    135    /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    136 }}}
    138 === Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file
    139 This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
    141   Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to
    142   decode some htpasswd formats.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there
    143   is no such package for Python 2.6. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0) work without this module.
    145 To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
    146 {{{#!sh
    147  $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
    148 }}}
    149 then for additional users:
    150 {{{#!sh
    151  $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
    152 }}}
    154 Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
    155 {{{#!sh
    156  $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /path/to/project
    157 }}}
    159 For example:
    160 {{{#!sh
    161  $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /path/to/project
    162 }}}
    163 ''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
    165 === Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file
    167 If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
    169 Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
    171 === Generating Passwords Without Apache
    173 Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://aspirine.org/htpasswd_en.html online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd. Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
    175 Trac also provides `htpasswd` and `htdigest` scripts in `contrib`:
    176 {{{#!sh
    177 $ ./contrib/htpasswd.py -cb htpasswd user1 user1
    178 $ ./contrib/htpasswd.py -b htpasswd user2 user2
    179 }}}
    181 {{{#!sh
    182 $ ./contrib/htdigest.py -cb htdigest trac user1 user1
    183 $ ./contrib/htdigest.py -b htdigest trac user2 user2
    184 }}}
    186 ==== Using `md5sum`
    187 It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
    188 {{{#!sh
    189 user=
    190 realm=
    191 password=
    192 path_to_file=
    193 echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
    194 }}}
    196 == Reference
    198 Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
    199 {{{
    200 Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ...
    202 Options:
    203   --version             show program's version number and exit
    204   -h, --help            show this help message and exit
    205   -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH
    206                         [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm]
    207   --basic-auth=BASICAUTH
    208                         [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm]
    209   -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to
    210   -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
    211                         the host name or IP address to bind to
    212   --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi
    213   -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
    214   --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1
    215   --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default)
    216   -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
    217                         parent directory of the project environments
    218   --base-path=BASE_PATH
    219                         the initial portion of the request URL's "path"
    220   -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
    221   -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
    222   -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
    223   --pidfile=PIDFILE     when daemonizing, file to which to write pid
    224   --umask=MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
    225                         octal notation (default 022)
    226   --group=GROUP         the group to run as
    227   --user=USER           the user to run as
    228 }}}
    230 Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
    232 == Tips
    234 === Serving static content
    236 If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
    237 it can also be used to distribute static content
    238 (tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)
    240 This static content should be put in the `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs` folder,
    241 and is accessed by URLs like `<project_URL>/chrome/site/...`.
    243 Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
    244 the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
    245 which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
    247 === Using tracd behind a proxy
    249 In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server.
    251 In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
    253 If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter.
    255 See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
    257 === Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
    258 It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using `--basic-auth`. There is some discussion about this in [trac:#9206].
    260 Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
    262 First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
    264 {{{#!apache
    265 <Location /project/proxified>
    266         Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,dc=domain.com
    267         Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
    268         ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
    269         # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
    270         RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
    271 </Location>
    272 }}}
    274 Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''remote-user-auth.py''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
    275 {{{#!python
    276 from trac.core import *
    277 from trac.config import BoolOption
    278 from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
    280 class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
    282     implements(IAuthenticator)
    284     obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
    285                """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
    286                 (''since ??.??').""")
    288     def authenticate(self, req):
    289         if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
    290             return req.get_header('Remote-User')
    291         return None
    293 }}}
    295 Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
    296 {{{#!ini
    297 [trac]
    298 ...
    299 obey_remote_user_header = true
    300 ...
    301 }}}
    303 Run tracd:
    304 {{{#!sh
    305 tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
    306 }}}
    308 Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini.
    310 Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`):
    311 {{{#!ini
    312 [components]
    313 remote-user-auth.* = enabled
    314 [inherit]
    315 plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins
    316 [trac]
    317 obey_remote_user_header = true
    318 }}}
    320 Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`):
    321 {{{#!ini
    322 [inherit]
    323 file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini
    324 }}}
    326 === Serving a different base path than /
    327 Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
    328 {{{#!sh
    329  $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
    330 }}}
    332 ----
    333 See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]
Note: See TracChangeset for help on using the changeset viewer.