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Timestamp:
01/10/17 06:02:14 (5 years ago)
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aafsvn
Message:

[titan] autoupdate wiki files

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  • wiki/pages/TracFastCgi

    r38413 r39712  
    1 = Trac with FastCGI
    2 
    3 [[TracGuideToc]]
    4 [[PageOutline(2-5, Contents, floated)]]
    5 
    6 [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] or [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request.  Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
    7 
    8 Note that unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], ie run with different permissions than the web server runs with. `mod_wsgi` supports the `WSGIDaemonProcess` with user / group parameters to achieve the same effect.
    9 
    10 '''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP]/[trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp ISAPI].
    11 
    12 == Simple Apache configuration
    13 
    14 There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and
    15 `mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
    16 
    17 The following sections focus on the FCGI specific setup, see also [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] for configuring the authentication in Apache.
    18 
    19 Regardless of which cgi module is used, be sure the web server has executable permissions on the cgi-bin folder. While FastCGI will throw specific permissions errors, mod_fcgid will throw an ambiguous error if this has not been done. Connection reset by peer: mod_fcgid: error reading data from FastCGI server.
    20 
    21 === Set up with `mod_fastcgi`
    22 
    23 `mod_fastcgi` uses `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives that should be added to an appropriate Apache configuration file:
    24 {{{
    25 # Enable fastcgi for .fcgi files
    26 # (If you're using a distro package for mod_fcgi, something like
    27 # this is probably already present)
    28 <IfModule mod_fastcgi.c>
    29    AddHandler fastcgi-script .fcgi
    30    FastCgiIpcDir /var/lib/apache2/fastcgi
    31 </IfModule>
    32 LoadModule fastcgi_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_fastcgi.so
    33 }}}
    34 Setting `FastCgiIpcDir` is optional if the default is suitable. Note that the `LoadModule` line must be after the `IfModule` group.
    35 
    36 Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but
    37 calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
    38 
    39 Add the following to the Apache configuration file (below the `FastCgiIpcDir` line) if you intend to set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
    40 {{{
    41 FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV=/path/to/env/trac
    42 }}}
    43 
    44 Alternatively, you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory by adding this:
    45 {{{
    46 FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR=/parent/dir/of/projects
    47 }}}
    48 
    49 === Set up with `mod_fcgid`
    50 
    51 Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`:
    52 {{{
    53 ScriptAlias /trac /path/to/www/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
    54 }}}
    55 Note the slash at the end.
    56 
    57 To set up Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use `DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or `Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try alternative environment setup below.
    58 
    59 {{{
    60 DefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/
    61 }}}
    62 
    63 === alternative environment setup
    64 
    65 A better method to specify path to the Trac environment is to embed the path into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of the server environment variables, works for both [trac:FastCgi] modules as well as for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI:
    66 {{{
    67 import os
    68 os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv"
    69 }}}
    70 or:
    71 {{{
    72 import os
    73 os.environ['TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR'] = "/path/to/project/parent/dir"
    74 }}}
    75 
    76 With this method different projects can be supported by using different `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
    77 
    78 See [https://coderanger.net/~coderanger/httpd/fcgi_example.conf this fcgid example config] which uses a !ScriptAlias directive with trac.fcgi with a trailing / like this:
    79 {{{
    80 ScriptAlias / /srv/tracsite/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
    81 }}}
    82 
    83 == Simple Cherokee Configuration
    84 
    85 The configuration on Cherokee's side is quite simple. You will only need to know that you can spawn Trac as an SCGI process.
    86 You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
    87 First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter:
    88 
    89 {{{
    90 Host:
    91 localhost:4433
    92 
    93 Interpreter:
    94 /usr/bin/tracd —single-env —daemonize —protocol=scgi —hostname=localhost —port=4433 /path/to/project/
    95 }}}
    96 
    97 If the port was not reachable, the interpreter command would be launched. Note that, in the definition of the information source, you will have to manually launch the spawner if you use a ''Remote host'' as ''Information source'' instead of a ''Local interpreter''.
    98 
    99 After doing this, we will just have to create a new rule managed by the SCGI handler to access Trac. It can be created in a new virtual server, trac.example.net for instance, and will only need two rules. The '''default''' one will use the SCGI handler associated to the previously created information source.
    100 The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''$TRAC_LOCAL/htdocs/'' (where $TRAC_LOCAL is a directory defined by the user or the system administrator to place local trac resources).
    101 
    102 Note:\\
    103 If the tracd process fails to start up, and cherokee displays a 503 error page, you might be missing the [http://trac.saddi.com/flup python-flup] package.\\
    104 Python-flup is a dependency which provides trac with SCGI capability. You can install it on debian based systems with:
    105 {{{
    106 sudo apt-get install python-flup
    107 }}}
    108 
    109 == Simple Lighttpd Configuration
    110 
    111 The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ Lighttpd].
    112 
    113 Lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance environments. It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
    114 
    115 For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with Lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
    116 {{{
    117 #var.fcgi_binary="/usr/bin/python /path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
    118 var.fcgi_binary="/path/to/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi" # 0.10 name of prior fcgi executable
    119 fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
    120    
    121                    ("trac" =>
    122                      ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
    123                       "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
    124                       "check-local" => "disable",
    125                       "bin-environment" =>
    126                         ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv")
    127                      )
    128                    )
    129                  )
    130 }}}
    131 
    132 Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above, and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf` using `bin-environment`, as in the section above on Apache configuration.
    133 
    134 Note that Lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example (see [trac:#2418]). This is fixed in Lighttpd 1.5, and under Lighttpd 1.4.23 or later the workaround is to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as a parameter of fastcgi.server.
    135 
    136 For using two projects with lighttpd add the following to your `lighttpd.conf`:
    137 {{{
    138 fastcgi.server = ("/first" =>
    139                    ("first" =>
    140                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi-first.sock",
    141                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
    142                      "check-local" => "disable",
    143                      "bin-environment" =>
    144                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv-first")
    145                     )
    146                   ),
    147                   "/second" =>
    148                     ("second" =>
    149                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi-second.sock",
    150                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
    151                      "check-local" => "disable",
    152                      "bin-environment" =>
    153                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv-second")
    154                     )
    155                   )
    156                 )
    157 }}}
    158 
    159 Note that field values are different. If you prefer setting the environment variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, eg to `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
    160 Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
    161 
    162 {{{
    163 #!div class=important
    164 '''Note''' It's very important the order on which server.modules are loaded, if mod_auth is not loaded '''BEFORE''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
    165 }}}
    166 
    167 For authentication you should enable mod_auth in lighttpd.conf 'server.modules', select auth.backend and auth rules:
    168 {{{
    169 server.modules              = (
    170 ...
    171   "mod_auth",
    172 ...
    173 )
    174 
    175 auth.backend               = "htpasswd"
    176 
    177 # Separated password files for each project
    178 # See "Conditional Configuration" in
    179 # http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/file/branches/lighttpd-merge-1.4.x/doc/configuration.txt
    180 
    181 $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/first/" {
    182   auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/projenv-first/htpasswd.htaccess"
    183 }
    184 $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/second/" {
    185   auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/projenv-second/htpasswd.htaccess"
    186 }
    187 
    188 # Enable auth on trac URLs, see
    189 # http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/file/branches/lighttpd-merge-1.4.x/doc/authentication.txt
    190 
    191 auth.require = ("/first/login" =>
    192                 ("method"  => "basic",
    193                  "realm"   => "First project",
    194                  "require" => "valid-user"
    195                 ),
    196                 "/second/login" =>
    197                 ("method"  => "basic",
    198                  "realm"   => "Second project",
    199                  "require" => "valid-user"
    200                 )
    201                )
    202 
    203 }}}
    204 Note that Lighttpd (v1.4.3) stops if the password file doesn't exist.
    205 
    206 Note that Lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
    207 
    208 Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, ie serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
    209 {{{
    210 # Aliasing functionality is needed
    211 server.modules += ("mod_alias")
    212 
    213 # Set up an alias for the static resources
    214 alias.url = ("/trac/chrome/common" => "/usr/share/trac/htdocs")
    215 
    216 # Use negative lookahead, matching all requests that ask for any resource under /trac, EXCEPT in
    217 # /trac/chrome/common, and use FastCGI for those
    218 $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/trac(?!/chrome/common)" {
    219 # Even if you have other fastcgi.server declarations for applications other than Trac, do NOT use += here
    220 fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
    221                    ("trac" =>
    222                      ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
    223                       "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
    224                       "check-local" => "disable",
    225                       "bin-environment" =>
    226                         ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv")
    227                      )
    228                    )
    229                  )
    230 }
    231 }}}
    232 
    233 The technique can be easily adapted for use with multiple projects by creating aliases for each of them, and wrapping the fastcgi.server declarations inside conditional configuration blocks.
    234 Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it's to use TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR instead of TRAC_ENV and use global auth, let's see an example:
    235 {{{
    236 #  This is for handling multiple projects
    237   alias.url       = ( "/trac/" => "/path/to/trac/htdocs/" )
    238 
    239   fastcgi.server += ("/projects"  =>
    240                       ("trac" =>
    241                         (
    242                           "socket" => "/tmp/trac.sock",
    243                           "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
    244                           "check-local" => "disable",
    245                           "bin-environment" =>
    246                             ("TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR" => "/path/to/parent/dir/of/projects/" )
    247                         )
    248                       )
    249                     )
    250 #And here starts the global auth configuration
    251   auth.backend = "htpasswd"
    252   auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/unique/htpassword/file/trac.htpasswd"
    253   $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/projects/.*/login$" {
    254     auth.require = ("/" =>
    255                      (
    256                        "method"  => "basic",
    257                        "realm"   => "trac",
    258                        "require" => "valid-user"
    259                      )
    260                    )
    261   }
    262 }}}
    263 
    264 Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME:
    265 {{{
    266 fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
    267                    ("trac" =>
    268                      ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
    269                       "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
    270                       "check-local" => "disable",
    271                       "bin-environment" =>
    272                         ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv",
    273                         "LC_TIME" => "ru_RU")
    274                      )
    275                    )
    276                  )
    277 }}}
    278 For details about languages specification see [trac:TracFaq TracFaq] question 2.13.
    279 
    280 Other important information like the [wiki:TracInstall#MappingStaticResources mapping static resources advices] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
    281 ]
    282 
    283 Relaunch Lighttpd and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
    284 
    285 Note about running Lighttpd with reduced permissions: If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with Lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
    286 
    287 == Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration
    288 
    289 The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed].
    290 
    291 !LiteSpeed web server is an event-driven asynchronous Apache replacement designed from the ground-up to be secure, scalable, and operate with minimal resources. !LiteSpeed can operate directly from an Apache config file and is targeted for business-critical environments.
    292 
    293  1. Please make sure you have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with "tracd" first.
    294 
    295  2. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your Trac project will be accessible via:
    296 {{{
    297 http://yourdomain.com/trac/
    298 }}}
    299 
    300  3. Go "!TracVhost → External Apps" tab and create a new "External Application".
    301 {{{
    302 Name: MyTracFCGI       
    303 Address: uds://tmp/lshttpd/mytracfcgi.sock
    304 Max Connections: 10
    305 Environment: TRAC_ENV=/fullpathto/mytracproject/ <--- path to root folder of trac project
    306 Initial Request Timeout (secs): 30
    307 Retry Timeout (secs): 0
    308 Persistent Connection   Yes
    309 Connection Keepalive Timeout: 30
    310 Response Bufferring: No
    311 Auto Start: Yes
    312 Command: /usr/share/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi  <--- path to trac.fcgi
    313 Back Log: 50
    314 Instances: 10
    315 }}}
    316 
    317  4. Optional: If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to "!TracVhost → Security" tab and create a new security Realm.
    318 
    319 {{{
    320 DB Type: Password File
    321 Realm Name: MyTracUserDB               <--- any name you wish and referenced later
    322 User DB Location: /fullpathto/htpasswd <--- path to your htpasswd file
    323 }}}
    324 
    325 If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
    326 
    327  5. Go to "!PythonVhost → Contexts" and create a new FCGI Context.
    328 
    329 {{{
    330 URI: /trac/                              <--- URI path to bind to python fcgi app we created   
    331 Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the trac fcgi extapp we just created
    332 Realm: TracUserDB                        <--- only if (4) is set. select realm created in (4)
    333 }}}
    334 
    335  6. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini`
    336 
    337 {{{
    338 #find/set base_rul, url, and link variables
    339 base_url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/ <--- base url to generate correct links to
    340 url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/      <--- link of project
    341 link = http://yourdomain.com/trac/     <--- link of graphic logo
    342 }}}
    343 
    344  7. Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:
    345 
    346 {{{
    347 http://yourdomain.com/trac/
    348 }}}
    349 
    350 == Simple Nginx Configuration
    351 
    352 Nginx is able to communicate with FastCGI processes, but can not spawn them. So you need to start FastCGI server for Trac separately.
    353 
    354  1. Nginx configuration with basic authentication handled by Nginx - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
    355  {{{
    356     server {
    357         listen       10.9.8.7:443;
    358         server_name  trac.example;
    359 
    360         ssl                  on;
    361         ssl_certificate      /etc/ssl/trac.example.crt;
    362         ssl_certificate_key  /etc/ssl/trac.example.key;
    363 
    364         ssl_session_timeout  5m;
    365 
    366         ssl_protocols  SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1;
    367         ssl_ciphers  ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP;
    368         ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
    369 
    370         # it makes sense to serve static resources through Nginx (or ``~ [/some/prefix]/chrome/(.*)``)
    371         location ~ /chrome/(.*) {
    372              alias /home/trac/instance/static/htdocs/$1;
    373         }
    374 
    375         # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix](/login)``
    376         # and remove the auth entries below if you want Trac to enforce
    377         # authorization where appropriate instead of needing to authenticate
    378         # for accessing the whole site.
    379         # (Or ``~ location /some/prefix(/.*)``.)
    380         location ~ (/.*) {
    381             auth_basic            "trac realm";
    382             auth_basic_user_file /home/trac/htpasswd;
    383 
    384             # socket address
    385             fastcgi_pass   unix:/home/trac/run/instance.sock;
    386 
    387             # python - wsgi specific
    388             fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
    389 
    390             ## WSGI REQUIRED VARIABLES
    391             # WSGI application name - trac instance prefix.
    392             # (Or ``fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME  /some/prefix``.)
    393             fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        "";
    394             fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $1;
    395 
    396             ## WSGI NEEDED VARIABLES - trac warns about them
    397             fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
    398             fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;
    399             fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
    400             fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
    401             fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
    402 
    403             # For Nginx authentication to work - do not forget to comment these
    404             # lines if not using Nginx for authentication
    405             fastcgi_param  AUTH_USER          $remote_user;
    406             fastcgi_param  REMOTE_USER        $remote_user;
    407 
    408             # for ip to work
    409             fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR         $remote_addr;
    410 
    411             # For attchments to work
    412             fastcgi_param    CONTENT_TYPE     $content_type;
    413             fastcgi_param    CONTENT_LENGTH   $content_length;
    414         }
    415     }
    416 }}}
    417  1. Modified trac.fcgi:
    418  {{{
    419 #!/usr/bin/env python
    420 import os
    421 sockaddr = '/home/trac/run/instance.sock'
    422 os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = '/home/trac/instance'
    423 
    424 try:
    425      from trac.web.main import dispatch_request
    426      import trac.web._fcgi
    427 
    428      fcgiserv = trac.web._fcgi.WSGIServer(dispatch_request,
    429           bindAddress = sockaddr, umask = 7)
    430      fcgiserv.run()
    431 
    432 except SystemExit:
    433     raise
    434 except Exception, e:
    435     print 'Content-Type: text/plain\r\n\r\n',
    436     print 'Oops...'
    437     print
    438     print 'Trac detected an internal error:'
    439     print
    440     print e
    441     print
    442     import traceback
    443     import StringIO
    444     tb = StringIO.StringIO()
    445     traceback.print_exc(file=tb)
    446     print tb.getvalue()
    447 
    448 }}}
    449  1. reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that:
    450  {{{#!sh
    451 trac@trac.example ~ $ ./trac-standalone-fcgi.py
    452 }}}
    453 
    454 The above assumes that:
    455  * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory
    456  * `/home/trac/instance` contains a trac environment
    457  * `/home/trac/htpasswd` contains authentication information
    458  * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the nginx runs under
    459   * and if your system is Linux the `/home/trac/run` has setgid bit set (`chmod g+s run`)
    460   * and patch from ticket #T7239 is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
    461 
    462 Unfortunately nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
    463 Thus it is not possible to serve multiple Trac instances from one server block.
    464 
    465 If you worry enough about security, run Trac instances under separate users.
    466 
    467 Another way to run Trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224
    468 
    469 ----
    470 See also:  TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]
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