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     1= Trac Installation Guide for 1.1
     4Trac is written in the Python programming language and needs a database, [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], or [http://mysql.com/ MySQL]. For HTML rendering, Trac uses the [http://genshi.edgewall.org Genshi] templating system.
     6Trac can also be localized, and there is probably a translation available in your language. If you want to use the Trac interface in other languages, then make sure you have installed the optional package [#OtherPythonPackages Babel]. Pay attention to the extra steps for localization support in the [#InstallingTrac Installing Trac] section below. Lacking Babel, you will only get the default English version.
     8If you're interested in contributing new translations for other languages or enhancing the existing translations, then please have a look at [trac:wiki:TracL10N TracL10N].
     10What follows are generic instructions for installing and setting up Trac. While you may find instructions for installing Trac on specific systems at [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], please '''first read through these general instructions''' to get a good understanding of the tasks involved.
     12[[PageOutline(2-3,Installation Steps,inline)]]
     14== Dependencies
     15=== Mandatory Dependencies
     16To install Trac, the following software packages must be installed:
     18 * [http://www.python.org/ Python], version >= 2.6 and < 3.0
     19   (note that we dropped the support for Python 2.5 in this release)
     20 * [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setuptools setuptools], version >= 0.6
     21 * [http://genshi.edgewall.org/wiki/Download Genshi], version >= 0.6
     23You also need a database system and the corresponding python bindings. The database can be either SQLite, PostgreSQL or MySQL.
     25==== For the SQLite database #ForSQLite
     27As you must be using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you already have the SQLite database bindings bundled with the standard distribution of Python (the `sqlite3` module).
     29Optionally, you may install a newer version of [pypi:pysqlite pysqlite] than the one provided by the Python distribution. See [trac:PySqlite#ThePysqlite2bindings PySqlite] for details.
     31==== For the PostgreSQL database #ForPostgreSQL
     33You need to install the database and its Python bindings:
     34 * [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], version 8.0 or later
     35 * [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/psycopg2 psycopg2], version 2.0 or later
     37See [trac:DatabaseBackend#Postgresql DatabaseBackend] for details.
     39==== For the MySQL database #ForMySQL
     41Trac works well with MySQL, provided you follow the guidelines:
     43 * [http://mysql.com/ MySQL], version 5.0 or later
     44 * [http://sf.net/projects/mysql-python MySQLdb], version 1.2.2 or later
     46Given the caveats and known issues surrounding MySQL, read carefully the [trac:MySqlDb] page before creating the database.
     48=== Optional Dependencies
     50==== Subversion
     52[http://subversion.apache.org/ Subversion], 1.6.x or later and the '''''corresponding''''' Python bindings.
     54There are [http://subversion.apache.org/packages.html pre-compiled SWIG bindings] available for various platforms. (Good luck finding precompiled SWIG bindings for any Windows package at that listing. [trac:TracSubversion] points you to [http://alagazam.net Alagazam], which works for me under Python 2.6.)
     56For troubleshooting information, see the [trac:TracSubversion#Troubleshooting TracSubversion] page.
     58{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     60* Trac '''doesn't''' use [http://pysvn.tigris.org/ PySVN], nor does it work yet with the newer `ctype`-style bindings.
     61* If using Subversion, Trac must be installed on the '''same machine'''. Remote repositories are currently [trac:ticket:493 not supported].
     64==== Git
     66[http://git-scm.com/ Git] 1.5.6 or later is supported. More information is available on the [trac:TracGit] page.
     68==== Other Version Control Systems
     70Support for other version control systems is provided via third-party plugins. See [trac:PluginList#VersionControlSystems] and [trac:VersionControlSystem].
     72==== Web Server
     73A web server is optional because Trac is shipped with a server included, see the [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running the Standalone Server] section below.
     75Alternatively you can configure Trac to run in any of the following environments:
     76 * [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] with
     77   - [https://github.com/GrahamDumpleton/mod_wsgi mod_wsgi], see [wiki:TracModWSGI] and
     78     [http://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/wiki/IntegrationWithTrac ModWSGI IntegrationWithTrac].
     79   - [http://modpython.org/ mod_python 3.5.0], see TracModPython
     80 * a [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI]-capable web server (see TracFastCgi)
     81 * an [http://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/ajp/ajpv13a.html AJP]-capable web
     82   server (see [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp TracOnWindowsIisAjp])
     83 * Microsoft IIS with FastCGI and a FastCGI-to-WSGI gateway (see [trac:CookBook/Installation/TracOnWindowsIisWfastcgi IIS with FastCGI])
     84 * a CGI-capable web server (see TracCgi), '''but usage of Trac as a cgi script
     85   is highly discouraged''', better use one of the previous options.
     88==== Other Python Packages
     90 * [http://babel.edgewall.org Babel], version 0.9.6 or >= 1.3,
     91   needed for localization support
     92 * [http://docutils.sourceforge.net/ docutils], version >= 0.3.9
     93   for WikiRestructuredText.
     94 * [http://pygments.org Pygments] for
     95   [TracSyntaxColoring syntax highlighting].
     96 * [http://pytz.sf.net pytz] to get a complete list of time zones,
     97   otherwise Trac will fall back on a shorter list from
     98   an internal time zone implementation.
     100{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     101**Attention**: The available versions of these dependencies are not necessarily interchangeable, so please pay attention to the version numbers. If you are having trouble getting Trac to work, please double-check all the dependencies before asking for help on the [trac:MailingList] or [trac:IrcChannel].
     104Please refer to the documentation of these packages to find out how they are best installed. In addition, most of the [trac:TracInstallPlatforms platform-specific instructions] also describe the installation of the dependencies. Keep in mind however that the information there ''probably concern older versions of Trac than the one you're installing''.
     106== Installing Trac
     108The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command-line tool, used to create and maintain [TracEnvironment project environments], as well as the [TracStandalone tracd] standalone server are installed along with Trac. There are several methods for installing Trac.
     110=== Using `easy_install`
     111Trac can be installed from PyPI or the Subversion repository using [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setuptools setuptools].
     113A few examples:
     115 - Install Trac 1.0:
     116   {{{#!sh
     117   easy_install Trac==1.0
     118   }}}
     119 - Install latest development version:
     120   {{{#!sh
     121   easy_install Trac==dev
     122   }}}
     123   Note that in this case you won't have the possibility to run a localized version of Trac;
     124   either use a released version or install from source
     126More information can be found on the [trac:setuptools] page.
     128{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     129**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation. More information may be found in the sections on [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running The Standalone Server] and [#RunningTraconaWebServer Running Trac on a Web Server].
     132=== Using `pip`
     133'pip' is an easy_install replacement that is very useful to quickly install python packages.
     134To get a Trac installation up and running in less than 5 minutes:
     136Assuming you want to have your entire pip installation in `/opt/user/trac`
     138 -
     139 {{{#!sh
     140pip install trac psycopg2
     143 -
     144 {{{#!sh
     145pip install trac mysql-python
     148Make sure your OS specific headers are available for pip to automatically build PostgreSQL (`libpq-dev`) or MySQL (`libmysqlclient-dev`) bindings.
     150pip will automatically resolve all dependencies (like Genshi, pygments, etc.), download the latest packages from pypi.python.org and create a self contained installation in `/opt/user/trac`.
     152All commands (`tracd`, `trac-admin`) are available in `/opt/user/trac/bin`. This can also be leveraged for `mod_python` (using `PythonHandler` directive) and `mod_wsgi` (using `WSGIDaemonProcess` directive)
     154Additionally, you can install several Trac plugins (listed [https://pypi.python.org/pypi?:action=browse&show=all&c=516 here]) through pip.
     156=== From source
     157Using the python-typical setup at the top of the source directory also works. You can obtain the source for a .tar.gz or .zip file corresponding to a release (e.g. `Trac-1.0.tar.gz`) from the [trac:TracDownload] page, or you can get the source directly from the repository. See [trac:TracRepositories#OfficialSubversionrepository TracRepositories] for details.
     160$ python ./setup.py install
     163''You will need root permissions or equivalent for this step.''
     165This will byte-compile the Python source code and install it as an .egg file or folder in the `site-packages` directory
     166of your Python installation. The .egg will also contain all other resources needed by standard Trac, such as `htdocs` and `templates`.
     168If you install from source and want to make Trac available in other languages, make sure Babel is installed. Only then, perform the `install` (or simply redo the `install` once again afterwards if you realize Babel was not yet installed):
     170$ python ./setup.py install
     172Alternatively, you can run `bdist_egg` and copy the .egg from `dist/` to the place of your choice, or you can create a Windows installer (`bdist_wininst`).
     174=== Using installer
     176On Windows, Trac can be installed using the exe installers available on the [trac:TracDownload] page. Installers are available for the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Python. Make sure to use the installer that matches the architecture of your Python installation.
     178=== Using package manager
     180Trac may be available in your platform's package repository. Note however, that the version provided by your package manager may not be the latest release.
     182=== Advanced `easy_install` Options
     184To install Trac to a custom location, or find out about other advanced installation options, run:
     186easy_install --help
     189Also see [http://docs.python.org/2/install/index.html Installing Python Modules] for detailed information.
     191Specifically, you might be interested in:
     193easy_install --prefix=/path/to/installdir
     195or, if installing Trac on a Mac OS X system:
     197easy_install --prefix=/usr/local --install-dir=/Library/Python/2.6/site-packages
     200{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     201**Mac OS X Note:** On Mac OS X 10.6,  running `easy_install trac` will install into `/usr/local` and `/Library/Python/2.6/site-packages` by default.
     203The `tracd` and `trac-admin` commands will be placed in `/usr/local/bin` and will install the Trac libraries and dependencies into `/Library/Python/2.6/site-packages`, which is Apple's preferred location for third-party Python application installations.
     206== Creating a Project Environment
     208A [TracEnvironment Trac environment] is the backend where Trac stores information like wiki pages, tickets, reports, settings, etc. An environment is a directory that contains a human-readable [TracIni configuration file], and other files and directories.
     210A new environment is created using [TracAdmin trac-admin]:
     212$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
     215[TracAdmin trac-admin] will prompt you for the information it needs to create the environment: the name of the project and the [TracEnvironment#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string]. If you're not sure what to specify for any of these options, just press `<Enter>` to use the default value.
     217Using the default database connection string will always work as long as you have SQLite installed. For the other [trac:DatabaseBackend database backends] you should plan ahead and already have a database ready to use at this point.
     219Also note that the values you specify here can be changed later using TracAdmin or directly editing the [TracIni conf/trac.ini] configuration file.
     221{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     222**Filesystem Warning:** When selecting the location of your environment, make sure that the filesystem on which the environment directory resides supports sub-second timestamps (i.e. **not** `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX), as the modification time of the `conf/trac.ini` file will be monitored to decide whether an environment restart is needed or not. A too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may result in inconsistencies in Trac < 1.0.2. The best advice is to opt for a platform with sub-second timestamp resolution, regardless of the Trac version.
     225Finally, make sure the user account under which the web front-end runs will have '''write permissions''' to the environment directory and all the files inside. This will be the case if you run `trac-admin ... initenv` as this user. If not, you should set the correct user afterwards. For example on Linux, with the web server running as user `apache` and group `apache`, enter:
     227$ chown -R apache:apache /path/to/myproject
     230The actual username and groupname of the apache server may not be exactly `apache`, and are specified in the Apache configuration file by the directives `User` and `Group` (if Apache `httpd` is what you use).
     232{{{#!div class=important
     233'''Warning:''' Please only use ASCII-characters for account name and project path, unicode characters are not supported there.
     236== Deploying Trac
     238=== Running the Standalone Server
     240After having created a Trac environment, you can easily try the web interface by running the standalone server [TracStandalone tracd]:
     242$ tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     245Then, fire up a browser and visit `http://localhost:8000/`. You should get a simple listing of all environments that `tracd` knows about. Follow the link to the environment you just created, and you should see Trac in action. If you only plan on managing a single project with Trac you can have the standalone server skip the environment list by starting it like this:
     247$ tracd -s --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     250{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     251**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation. The environment variable can be set system-wide, or for just the user that runs the `tracd` process. There are several ways to accomplish this in addition to what is discussed here, and depending on the distribution of your OS.
     253To be effective system-wide a shell script with the `export` statement may be added to `/etc/profile.d`. To be effective for a user session the `export` statement may be added to `~/.profile`.
     258Alternatively, the variable can be set in the shell before executing `tracd`:
     260$ PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1 tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     264=== Running Trac on a Web Server
     266Trac provides various options for connecting to a "real" web server:
     267 - [TracFastCgi FastCGI]
     268 - [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]
     269 - [TracModPython mod_python]
     270 - //[TracCgi CGI] (should not be used, as the performance is far from optimal)//
     272Trac also supports [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP] which may be your choice if you want to connect to IIS. Other deployment scenarios are possible: [trac:TracNginxRecipe nginx], [http://projects.unbit.it/uwsgi/wiki/Example#Traconapacheinasub-uri uwsgi], [trac:TracOnWindowsIisIsapi Isapi-wsgi] etc.
     274==== Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory #cgi-bin
     276In order for Trac to function properly with FastCGI you need to have a `trac.fcgi` file and for mod_wsgi a `trac.wsgi` file. These are Python scripts which load the appropriate Python code. They can be generated using the `deploy` option of [TracAdmin trac-admin].
     278There is, however, a bit of a chicken-and-egg problem. The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command requires an existing environment to function, but complains if the deploy directory already exists. This is a problem, because environments are often stored in a subdirectory of the deploy. The solution is to do something like this:
     280mkdir -p /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project
     281trac-admin /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project initenv
     282trac-admin /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project deploy /tmp/deploy
     283mv /tmp/deploy/* /usr/share/trac
     285Don't forget to check that the web server has the execution right on scripts in the `/usr/share/trac/cgi-bin` directory.
     287==== Mapping Static Resources
     289Out of the box, Trac will pass static resources such as style sheets or images through itself. For anything but a tracd only based deployment, this is far from optimal as the web server could be set up to directly serve those static resources (for CGI setup, this is '''highly undesirable''' and will cause abysmal performance).
     291Web servers such as [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] allow you to create “Aliases” to resources, giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily reflect the layout of the servers file system. We also can map requests for static resources directly to the directory on the file system, avoiding processing these requests by Trac itself.
     293There are two primary URL paths for static resources - `/chrome/common` and `/chrome/site`. Plugins can add their own resources, usually accessible by `/chrome/<plugin>` path, so its important to override only known paths and not try to make universal `/chrome` alias for everything.
     295Note that in order to get those static resources on the filesystem, you need first to extract the relevant resources from Trac using the TracAdmin `deploy` command:
     298The target `<directory>` will then contain an `htdocs` directory with:
     299 - `site/` - a copy of the environment's directory `htdocs/`
     300 - `common/` - the static resources of Trac itself
     301 - `<plugins>/` - one directory for each resource directory managed by the plugins enabled for this environment
     303===== Example: Apache and `ScriptAlias` #ScriptAlias-example
     305Assuming the deployment has been done this way:
     307$ trac-admin /var/trac/env deploy /path/to/shared/trac
     310Add the following snippet to Apache configuration ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` (which map all the other requests to the Trac application), changing paths to match your deployment:
     312Alias /trac/chrome/common /path/to/trac/htdocs/common
     313Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/trac/htdocs/site
     315<Directory "/path/to/www/trac/htdocs">
     316  Order allow,deny
     317  Allow from all
     321If using mod_python, you might want to add this too (otherwise, the alias will be ignored):
     323<Location "/trac/chrome/common/">
     324  SetHandler None
     328Note that we mapped the `/trac` part of the URL to the `trac.*cgi` script, and the path `/trac/chrome/common` is the path you have to append to that location to intercept requests to the static resources.
     330Similarly, if you have static resources in a project's `htdocs` directory (which is referenced by `/trac/chrome/site` URL in themes), you can configure Apache to serve those resources (again, put this ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` for the .*cgi scripts, and adjust names and locations to match your installation):
     332Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/projectenv/htdocs
     334<Directory "/path/to/projectenv/htdocs">
     335  Order allow,deny
     336  Allow from all
     340Alternatively to aliasing `/trac/chrome/common`, you can tell Trac to generate direct links for those static resources (and only those), using the [[TracIni#trac-section| [trac] htdocs_location]] configuration setting:
     343htdocs_location = http://static.example.org/trac-common/
     345Note that this makes it easy to have a dedicated domain serve those static resources (preferentially [http://code.google.com/speed/page-speed/docs/request.html#ServeFromCookielessDomain cookie-less]).
     347Of course, you still need to make the Trac `htdocs/common` directory available through the web server at the specified URL, for example by copying (or linking) the directory into the document root of the web server:
     349$ ln -s /path/to/trac/htdocs/common /var/www/static.example.org/trac-common
     352==== Setting up the Plugin Cache
     354Some Python plugins need to be extracted to a cache directory. By default the cache resides in the home directory of the current user. When running Trac on a Web Server as a dedicated user (which is highly recommended) who has no home directory, this might prevent the plugins from starting. To override the cache location you can set the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` environment variable. Refer to your server documentation for detailed instructions on how to set environment variables.
     356== Configuring Authentication
     358Trac uses HTTP authentication. You'll need to configure your webserver to request authentication when the `.../login` URL is hit (the virtual path of the "login" button). Trac will automatically pick the `REMOTE_USER` variable up after you provide your credentials. Therefore, all user management goes through your web server configuration. Please consult the documentation of your web server for more info.
     360The process of adding, removing, and configuring user accounts for authentication depends on the specific way you run Trac.
     362Please refer to one of the following sections:
     363 * TracStandalone#UsingAuthentication if you use the standalone server, `tracd`.
     364 * [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] if you use the Apache web server, with any of its front end: `mod_wsgi`, `mod_python`, `mod_fcgi` or `mod_fastcgi`.
     365 * TracFastCgi if you're using another web server with FCGI support (Cherokee, Lighttpd, !LiteSpeed, nginx)
     367[trac:TracAuthenticationIntroduction] also contains some useful information for beginners.
     369== Granting admin rights to the admin user
     370Grant admin rights to user admin:
     372$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject permission add admin TRAC_ADMIN
     375This user will have an //Admin// navigation item that directs to pages for administering your Trac project.
     377== Configuring Trac
     379TracRepositoryAdmin provides information on configuring version control repositories for your project.
     381== Using Trac
     383Once you have your Trac site up and running, you should be able to create tickets, view the timeline, browse your version control repository if configured, etc.
     385Keep in mind that //anonymous// (not logged in) users can by default access only a few of the features, in particular they will have a read-only access to the resources. You will need to configure authentication and grant additional [TracPermissions permissions] to authenticated users to see the full set of features.
     387'' Enjoy! ''
     389[trac:TracTeam The Trac Team]
     392See also: [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], TracGuide, TracUpgrade, TracPermissions
Note: See TracChangeset for help on using the changeset viewer.