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  • wiki/pages/TracReports

    r40226 r40534  
    1 = Trac Reports =
    2 [[TracGuideToc]]
    4 The Trac reports module provides a simple, yet powerful reporting facility
    5 to present information about tickets in the Trac database.
    7 Rather than have its own report definition format, TracReports relies on standard SQL
    8 `SELECT` statements for custom report definition.
    10   '''Note:''' ''The report module is being phased out in its current form because it seriously limits the ability of the Trac team to make adjustments to the underlying database schema. We believe that the [wiki:TracQuery query module] is a good replacement that provides more flexibility and better usability. While there are certain reports that cannot yet be handled by the query module, we intend to further enhance it so that at some point the reports module can be completely removed. This also means that there will be no major enhancements to the report module anymore.''
    12   ''You can already completely replace the reports module by the query module simply by disabling the former in [wiki:TracIni trac.ini]:''
    13   {{{
    14   [components]
    15   trac.ticket.report.* = disabled
    16   }}}
    17   ''This will make the query module the default handler for the “View Tickets” navigation item. We encourage you to try this configuration and report back what kind of features of reports you are missing, if any.''
    19 A report consists of these basic parts:
    20  * '''ID''' — Unique (sequential) identifier
    21  * '''Title''' — Descriptive title
    22  * '''Description''' — A brief description of the report, in WikiFormatting text.
    23  * '''Report Body''' — List of results from report query, formatted according to the methods described below.
    24  * '''Footer''' — Links to alternative download formats for this report.
    26 == Changing Sort Order ==
    27 Simple reports - ungrouped reports to be specific - can be changed to be sorted by any column simply by clicking the column header.
    29 If a column header is a hyperlink (red), click the column you would like to sort by. Clicking the same header again reverses the order.
    31 == Changing Report Numbering ==
    32 There may be instances where you need to change the ID of the report, perhaps to organize the reports better. At present this requires changes to the trac database. The ''report'' table has the following schema:
    33  * id integer PRIMARY KEY
    34  * author text
    35  * title text
    36  * query text
    37  * description text
    38 Changing the ID changes the shown order and number in the ''Available Reports'' list and the report's perma-link. This is done by running something like:
    39 {{{
    40 update report set id=5 where id=3;
    41 }}}
    42 Keep in mind that the integrity has to be maintained (i.e., ID has to be unique, and you don't want to exceed the max, since that's managed by SQLite someplace).
    44 You may also need to update or remove the report number stored in the report or query.
    46 == Navigating Tickets ==
    47 Clicking on one of the report results will take you to that ticket. You can navigate through the results by clicking the ''Next Ticket'' or ''Previous Ticket'' links just below the main menu bar, or click the ''Back to Report'' link to return to the report page.
    49 You can safely edit any of the tickets and continue to navigate through the results using the ''!Next/Previous/Back to Report'' links after saving your results, but when you return to the report, there will be no hint about what has changed, as would happen if you were navigating a list of tickets obtained from a query (see TracQuery#NavigatingTickets).
    51 == Alternative Download Formats ==
    52 Aside from the default HTML view, reports can also be exported in a number of alternative formats.
    53 At the bottom of the report page, you will find a list of available data formats. Click the desired link to
    54 download the alternative report format.
    56 === Comma-delimited - CSV (Comma Separated Values) ===
    57 Export the report as plain text, each row on its own line, columns separated by a single comma (',').
    58 '''Note:''' The output is fully escaped so carriage returns, line feeds, and commas will be preserved in the output.
    60 === Tab-delimited ===
    61 Like above, but uses tabs (\t) instead of comma.
    63 === RSS - XML Content Syndication ===
    64 All reports support syndication using XML/RSS 2.0. To subscribe to an RSS feed, click the orange 'XML' icon at the bottom of the page. See TracRss for general information on RSS support in Trac.
    66 ----
    68 == Creating Custom Reports ==
    70 ''Creating a custom report requires a comfortable knowledge of SQL.''
    72 '''Note that you need to set up [TracPermissions#Reports permissions] in order to see the buttons for adding or editing reports.'''
    74 A report is basically a single named SQL query, executed and presented by
    75 Trac.  Reports can be viewed and created from a custom SQL expression directly
    76 in the web interface.
    78 Typically, a report consists of a SELECT-expression from the 'ticket' table,
    79 using the available columns and sorting the way you want it.
    81 == Ticket columns ==
    82 The ''ticket'' table has the following columns:
    83  * id
    84  * type
    85  * time
    86  * changetime
    87  * component
    88  * severity 
    89  * priority
    90  * owner
    91  * reporter
    92  * cc
    93  * version
    94  * milestone
    95  * status
    96  * resolution
    97  * summary
    98  * description
    99  * keywords
    101 See TracTickets for a detailed description of the column fields.
    103 Example: '''All active tickets, sorted by priority and time'''
    104 {{{
    105 SELECT id AS ticket, status, severity, priority, owner,
    106        time AS created, summary FROM ticket
    107   WHERE status IN ('new', 'assigned', 'reopened')
    108   ORDER BY priority, time
    109 }}}
    111 Dynamic variables can also be used in the report title and description (since 1.1.1).
    113 == Advanced Reports: Dynamic Variables ==
    114 For more flexible reports, Trac supports the use of ''dynamic variables'' in report SQL statements.
    115 In short, dynamic variables are ''special'' strings that are replaced by custom data before query execution.
    117 === Using Variables in a Query ===
    118 The syntax for dynamic variables is simple, any upper case word beginning with '$' is considered a variable.
    120 Example:
    121 {{{
    122 SELECT id AS ticket,summary FROM ticket WHERE priority=$PRIORITY
    123 }}}
    125 To assign a value to $PRIORITY when viewing the report, you must define it as an argument in the report URL, leaving out the leading '$'.
    127 Example:
    128 {{{
    129  http://trac.edgewall.org/reports/14?PRIORITY=high
    130 }}}
    132 To use multiple variables, separate them with an '&'.
    134 Example:
    135 {{{
    136  http://trac.edgewall.org/reports/14?PRIORITY=high&SEVERITY=critical
    137 }}}
    140 === !Special/Constant Variables ===
    141 There is one dynamic variable whose value is set automatically (the URL does not have to be changed) to allow practical reports.
    143  * $USER — Username of logged in user.
    145 Example (''List all tickets assigned to me''):
    146 {{{
    147 SELECT id AS ticket,summary FROM ticket WHERE owner=$USER
    148 }}}
    152 == Advanced Reports: Custom Formatting ==
    153 Trac is also capable of more advanced reports, including custom layouts,
    154 result grouping and user-defined CSS styles. To create such reports, we'll use
    155 specialized SQL statements to control the output of the Trac report engine.
    157 === Special Columns ===
    158 To format reports, TracReports looks for 'magic' column names in the query
    159 result. These 'magic' names are processed and affect the layout and style of the
    160 final report.
    162 === Automatically formatted columns ===
    163  * '''ticket''' — Ticket ID number. Becomes a hyperlink to that ticket.
    164  * '''id''' — same as '''ticket''' above when '''realm''' is not set
    165  * '''realm''' — together with '''id''', can be used to create links to other resources than tickets (e.g. a realm of ''wiki'' and an ''id'' to a page name will create a link to that wiki page)
    166    - for some kind of resources, it may be necessary to specify their ''parent'' resources (e.g. for ''changeset'', which ''repos'') and this can be achieved using the '''parent_realm''' and '''parent_id''' columns
    167  * '''created, modified, date, time''' — Format cell as a date and/or time.
    168  * '''description''' — Ticket description field, parsed through the wiki engine.
    170 '''Example:'''
    171 {{{
    172 SELECT id AS ticket, created, status, summary FROM ticket
    173 }}}
    175 Those columns can also be defined but marked as hidden, see [#column-syntax below].
    177 See trac:wiki/CookBook/Configuration/Reports for some example of creating reports for realms other than ''ticket''.
    179 === Custom formatting columns ===
    180 Columns whose names begin and end with 2 underscores (Example: '''`__color__`''') are
    181 assumed to be ''formatting hints'', affecting the appearance of the row.
    183  * '''`__group__`''' — Group results based on values in this column. Each group will have its own header and table.
    184  * '''`__grouplink__`''' — Make the header of each group a link to the specified URL. The URL is taken from the first row of each group.
    185  * '''`__color__`''' — Should be a numeric value ranging from 1 to 5 to select a pre-defined row color. Typically used to color rows by issue priority.
    186 {{{
    187 #!html
    188 <div style="margin-left:7.5em">Defaults:
    189 <span style="border: none; color: #333; background: transparent;  font-size: 85%; background: #fdc; border-color: #e88; color: #a22">Color 1</span>
    190 <span style="border: none; color: #333; background: transparent;  font-size: 85%; background: #ffb; border-color: #eea; color: #880">Color 2</span>
    191 <span style="border: none; color: #333; background: transparent;  font-size: 85%; background: #fbfbfb; border-color: #ddd; color: #444">Color 3</span>
    192 <span style="border: none; color: #333; background: transparent; font-size: 85%; background: #e7ffff; border-color: #cee; color: #099">Color 4</span>
    193 <span style="border: none; color: #333; background: transparent;  font-size: 85%; background: #e7eeff; border-color: #cde; color: #469">Color 5</span>
    194 </div>
    195 }}}
    196  * '''`__style__`''' — A custom CSS style expression to use on the `<tr>` element of the current row.
    197  * '''`__class__`''' — Zero or more space-separated CSS class names to be set on the `<tr>` element of the current row. These classes are added to the class name derived from `__color__` and the odd / even indicator.
    199 '''Example:''' ''List active tickets, grouped by milestone, group header linked to milestone page, colored by priority''
    200 {{{
    201 SELECT p.value AS __color__,
    202      t.milestone AS __group__,
    203      '../milestone/' || t.milestone AS __grouplink__,
    204      (CASE owner WHEN 'daniel' THEN 'font-weight: bold; background: red;' ELSE '' END) AS __style__,
    205        t.id AS ticket, summary
    206   FROM ticket t,enum p
    207   WHERE t.status IN ('new', 'assigned', 'reopened')
    208     AND p.name=t.priority AND p.type='priority'
    209   ORDER BY t.milestone, p.value, t.severity, t.time
    210 }}}
    212 '''Note:''' A table join is used to match ''ticket'' priorities with their
    213 numeric representation from the ''enum'' table.
    215 === Changing layout of report rows === #column-syntax
    216 By default, all columns on each row are display on a single row in the HTML
    217 report, possibly formatted according to the descriptions above. However, it's
    218 also possible to create multi-line report entries.
    220  * '''`column_`''' — ''Break row after this''. By appending an underscore ('_') to the column name, the remaining columns will be continued on a second line.
    222  * '''`_column_`''' — ''Full row''. By adding an underscore ('_') both at the beginning and the end of a column name, the data will be shown on a separate row.
    224  * '''`_column`''' — ''Hide data''. Prepending an underscore ('_') to a column name instructs Trac to hide the contents from the HTML output. This is useful for information to be visible only if downloaded in other formats (like CSV or RSS/XML).
    225    This can be used to hide any kind of column, even important ones required for identifying the resource, e.g. `id as _id` will hide the '''Id''' column but the link to the ticket will be present.
    227 '''Example:''' ''List active tickets, grouped by milestone, colored by priority, with  description and multi-line layout''
    229 {{{
    230 SELECT p.value AS __color__,
    231        t.milestone AS __group__,
    232        (CASE owner
    233           WHEN 'daniel' THEN 'font-weight: bold; background: red;'
    234           ELSE '' END) AS __style__,
    235        t.id AS ticket, summary AS summary_,             -- ## Break line here
    236        component,version, severity, milestone, status, owner,
    237        time AS created, changetime AS modified,         -- ## Dates are formatted
    238        description AS _description_,                    -- ## Uses a full row
    239        changetime AS _changetime, reporter AS _reporter -- ## Hidden from HTML output
    240   FROM ticket t,enum p
    241   WHERE t.status IN ('new', 'assigned', 'reopened')
    242     AND p.name=t.priority AND p.type='priority'
    243   ORDER BY t.milestone, p.value, t.severity, t.time
    244 }}}
    246 === Reporting on custom fields ===
    248 If you have added custom fields to your tickets (see TracTicketsCustomFields), you can write a SQL query to cover them. You'll need to make a join on the ticket_custom table, but this isn't especially easy.
    250 If you have tickets in the database ''before'' you declare the extra fields in trac.ini, there will be no associated data in the ticket_custom table. To get around this, use SQL's "LEFT OUTER JOIN" clauses. See [trac:TracIniReportCustomFieldSample TracIniReportCustomFieldSample] for some examples.
    252 === A note about SQL rewriting #rewriting
    254 Beyond the relatively trivial replacement of dynamic variables, the SQL query is also altered in order to support two features of the reports:
    255  1. [#sort-order changing the sort order]
    256  2. pagination support (limitation of the number of result rows displayed on each page)
    257 In order to support the first feature, the sort column is inserted in the `ORDER BY` clause in the first position or in the second position if a `__group__` column is specified (an `ORDER BY` clause is created if needed). In order to support pagination, a `LIMIT ... OFFSET ...` clause is appended.
    258 The query might be too complex for the automatic rewrite to work correctly, resulting in an erroneous query. In this case you still have the possibility to control exactly how the rewrite is done by manually inserting the following tokens:
    259  - `@SORT_COLUMN@`, the place where the name of the selected sort column will be inserted,
    260  - `@LIMIT_OFFSET@`, the place where the pagination support clause will be added
    261 Note that if you write them after an SQL comment, `--`, you'll effectively disable rewriting if this is what you want!
    263 Let's take an example, consider the following SQL query:
    264 {{{
    265 -- ## 4: Assigned, Active Tickets by Owner ## --
    267 --
    268 -- List assigned tickets, group by ticket owner, sorted by priority.
    269 --
    271 SELECT p.value AS __color__,
    272    owner AS __group__,
    273    id AS ticket, summary, component, milestone, t.type AS type, severity, time AS created,
    274    changetime AS _changetime, description AS _description,
    275    reporter AS _reporter
    276   FROM ticket t,enum p
    277   WHERE status = 'assigned'
    278 AND p.name=t.priority AND p.type='priority'
    279   ORDER BY __group__, p.value, severity, time
    280 }}}
    282 The automatic rewrite will be the following (4 rows per page, page 2, sorted by `component`):
    283 {{{
    284 SELECT p.value AS __color__,
    285    owner AS __group__,
    286    id AS ticket, summary, component, milestone, t.type AS type, severity, time AS created,
    287    changetime AS _changetime, description AS _description,
    288    reporter AS _reporter
    289   FROM ticket t,enum p
    290   WHERE status = 'assigned'
    291 AND p.name=t.priority AND p.type='priority'
    292   ORDER BY __group__ ASC, `component` ASC,  __group__, p.value, severity, time
    293  LIMIT 4 OFFSET 4
    294 }}}
    296 The equivalent SQL query with the rewrite tokens would have been:
    297 {{{
    298 SELECT p.value AS __color__,
    299    owner AS __group__,
    300    id AS ticket, summary, component, milestone, t.type AS type, severity, time AS created,
    301    changetime AS _changetime, description AS _description,
    302    reporter AS _reporter
    303   FROM ticket t,enum p
    304   WHERE status = 'assigned'
    305 AND p.name=t.priority AND p.type='priority'
    306   ORDER BY __group__, @SORT_COLUMN@, p.value, severity, time
    307 @LIMIT_OFFSET@
    308 }}}
    310 If you want to always sort first by priority and only then by the user selected sort column, simply use the following `ORDER BY` clause:
    311 {{{
    312   ORDER BY __group__, p.value, @SORT_COLUMN@, severity, time
    313 }}}
    315 ----
    316 See also: TracTickets, TracQuery, TracGuide, [http://www.sqlite.org/lang_expr.html Query Language Understood by SQLite]
Note: See TracChangeset for help on using the changeset viewer.